Flame Graphs visualize profiled code

Overview

Flame Graphs visualize profiled code

Main Website: http://www.brendangregg.com/flamegraphs.html

Example (click to zoom):

Example

Click a box to zoom the Flame Graph to this stack frame only. To search and highlight all stack frames matching a regular expression, click the search button in the upper right corner or press Ctrl-F. By default, search is case sensitive, but this can be toggled by pressing Ctrl-I or by clicking the ic button in the upper right corner.

Other sites:

Flame graphs can be created in three steps:

  1. Capture stacks
  2. Fold stacks
  3. flamegraph.pl

1. Capture stacks

Stack samples can be captured using Linux perf_events, FreeBSD pmcstat (hwpmc), DTrace, SystemTap, and many other profilers. See the stackcollapse-* converters.

Linux perf_events

Using Linux perf_events (aka "perf") to capture 60 seconds of 99 Hertz stack samples, both user- and kernel-level stacks, all processes:

# perf record -F 99 -a -g -- sleep 60
# perf script > out.perf

Now only capturing PID 181:

# perf record -F 99 -p 181 -g -- sleep 60
# perf script > out.perf

DTrace

Using DTrace to capture 60 seconds of kernel stacks at 997 Hertz:

# dtrace -x stackframes=100 -n 'profile-997 /arg0/ { @[stack()] = count(); } tick-60s { exit(0); }' -o out.kern_stacks

Using DTrace to capture 60 seconds of user-level stacks for PID 12345 at 97 Hertz:

# dtrace -x ustackframes=100 -n 'profile-97 /pid == 12345 && arg1/ { @[ustack()] = count(); } tick-60s { exit(0); }' -o out.user_stacks

60 seconds of user-level stacks, including time spent in-kernel, for PID 12345 at 97 Hertz:

# dtrace -x ustackframes=100 -n 'profile-97 /pid == 12345/ { @[ustack()] = count(); } tick-60s { exit(0); }' -o out.user_stacks

Switch ustack() for jstack() if the application has a ustack helper to include translated frames (eg, node.js frames; see: http://dtrace.org/blogs/dap/2012/01/05/where-does-your-node-program-spend-its-time/). The rate for user-level stack collection is deliberately slower than kernel, which is especially important when using jstack() as it performs additional work to translate frames.

2. Fold stacks

Use the stackcollapse programs to fold stack samples into single lines. The programs provided are:

  • stackcollapse.pl: for DTrace stacks
  • stackcollapse-perf.pl: for Linux perf_events "perf script" output
  • stackcollapse-pmc.pl: for FreeBSD pmcstat -G stacks
  • stackcollapse-stap.pl: for SystemTap stacks
  • stackcollapse-instruments.pl: for XCode Instruments
  • stackcollapse-vtune.pl: for Intel VTune profiles
  • stackcollapse-ljp.awk: for Lightweight Java Profiler
  • stackcollapse-jstack.pl: for Java jstack(1) output
  • stackcollapse-gdb.pl: for gdb(1) stacks
  • stackcollapse-go.pl: for Golang pprof stacks
  • stackcollapse-vsprof.pl: for Microsoft Visual Studio profiles
  • stackcollapse-wcp.pl: for wallClockProfiler output

Usage example:

For perf_events:
$ ./stackcollapse-perf.pl out.perf > out.folded

For DTrace:
$ ./stackcollapse.pl out.kern_stacks > out.kern_folded

The output looks like this:

unix`_sys_sysenter_post_swapgs 1401
unix`_sys_sysenter_post_swapgs;genunix`close 5
unix`_sys_sysenter_post_swapgs;genunix`close;genunix`closeandsetf 85
unix`_sys_sysenter_post_swapgs;genunix`close;genunix`closeandsetf;c2audit`audit_closef 26
unix`_sys_sysenter_post_swapgs;genunix`close;genunix`closeandsetf;c2audit`audit_setf 5
unix`_sys_sysenter_post_swapgs;genunix`close;genunix`closeandsetf;genunix`audit_getstate 6
unix`_sys_sysenter_post_swapgs;genunix`close;genunix`closeandsetf;genunix`audit_unfalloc 2
unix`_sys_sysenter_post_swapgs;genunix`close;genunix`closeandsetf;genunix`closef 48
[...]

3. flamegraph.pl

Use flamegraph.pl to render a SVG.

$ ./flamegraph.pl out.kern_folded > kernel.svg

An advantage of having the folded input file (and why this is separate to flamegraph.pl) is that you can use grep for functions of interest. Eg:

$ grep cpuid out.kern_folded | ./flamegraph.pl > cpuid.svg

Provided Examples

Linux perf_events

An example output from Linux "perf script" is included, gzip'd, as example-perf-stacks.txt.gz. The resulting flame graph is example-perf.svg:

Example

You can create this using:

$ gunzip -c example-perf-stacks.txt.gz | ./stackcollapse-perf.pl --all | ./flamegraph.pl --color=java --hash > example-perf.svg

This shows my typical workflow: I'll gzip profiles on the target, then copy them to my laptop for analysis. Since I have hundreds of profiles, I leave them gzip'd!

Since this profile included Java, I used the flamegraph.pl --color=java palette. I've also used stackcollapse-perf.pl --all, which includes all annotations that help flamegraph.pl use separate colors for kernel and user level code. The resulting flame graph uses: green == Java, yellow == C++, red == user-mode native, orange == kernel.

This profile was from an analysis of vert.x performance. The benchmark client, wrk, is also visible in the flame graph.

DTrace

An example output from DTrace is also included, example-dtrace-stacks.txt, and the resulting flame graph, example-dtrace.svg:

Example

You can generate this using:

$ ./stackcollapse.pl example-stacks.txt | ./flamegraph.pl > example.svg

This was from a particular performance investigation: the Flame Graph identified that CPU time was spent in the lofs module, and quantified that time.

Options

See the USAGE message (--help) for options:

USAGE: ./flamegraph.pl [options] infile > outfile.svg

red) --notes TEXT # add notes comment in SVG (for debugging) --help # this message eg, ./flamegraph.pl --title="Flame Graph: malloc()" trace.txt > graph.svg">
--title TEXT     # change title text
--subtitle TEXT  # second level title (optional)
--width NUM      # width of image (default 1200)
--height NUM     # height of each frame (default 16)
--minwidth NUM   # omit smaller functions (default 0.1 pixels)
--fonttype FONT  # font type (default "Verdana")
--fontsize NUM   # font size (default 12)
--countname TEXT # count type label (default "samples")
--nametype TEXT  # name type label (default "Function:")
--colors PALETTE # set color palette. choices are: hot (default), mem,
                 # io, wakeup, chain, java, js, perl, red, green, blue,
                 # aqua, yellow, purple, orange
--bgcolors COLOR # set background colors. gradient choices are yellow
                 # (default), blue, green, grey; flat colors use "#rrggbb"
--hash           # colors are keyed by function name hash
--cp             # use consistent palette (palette.map)
--reverse        # generate stack-reversed flame graph
--inverted       # icicle graph
--flamechart     # produce a flame chart (sort by time, do not merge stacks)
--negate         # switch differential hues (blue<->red)
--notes TEXT     # add notes comment in SVG (for debugging)
--help           # this message

eg,
./flamegraph.pl --title="Flame Graph: malloc()" trace.txt > graph.svg

As suggested in the example, flame graphs can process traces of any event, such as malloc()s, provided stack traces are gathered.

Consistent Palette

If you use the --cp option, it will use the $colors selection and randomly generate the palette like normal. Any future flamegraphs created using the --cp option will use the same palette map. Any new symbols from future flamegraphs will have their colors randomly generated using the $colors selection.

If you don't like the palette, just delete the palette.map file.

This allows your to change your colorscheme between flamegraphs to make the differences REALLY stand out.

Example:

Say we have 2 captures, one with a problem, and one when it was working (whatever "it" is):

cat working.folded | ./flamegraph.pl --cp > working.svg
# this generates a palette.map, as per the normal random generated look.

cat broken.folded | ./flamegraph.pl --cp --colors mem > broken.svg
# this svg will use the same palette.map for the same events, but a very
# different colorscheme for any new events.

Take a look at the demo directory for an example:

palette-example-working.svg
palette-example-broken.svg

Issues
  • Added Zoom inside SVG

    Added Zoom inside SVG

    This extends svg script to zoom/unzoom. This was only tested under chromium, but should not break from standard svg.

    You may consider moving the "Reset Zoom" button to a more "clean" position.

    opened by Saruspete 13
  • "java 19983 cycles:" not matched as the event header - perf v3.2.28

    Environment: hostname : xguan-ubuntu os release : 3.2.0-31-generic perf version : 3.2.28 arch : x86_64 cmdline : /usr/bin/perf_3.2.0-31 record -F 99 -p 19982 -g sleep 30

    ...

    The perf.out:

    java 19983 cycles: 7f7241fbe6d8 arrayOopDesc::base(BasicType) const (/home/xguan/opt/jdk1.8.0_112/jre/lib/amd64/server/libjvm.so) 7f7241239aec writeBytes (/home/xguan/opt/jdk1.8.0_112/jre/lib/amd64/libjava.so) 7f724123176f Java_java_io_FileOutputStream_writeBytes (/home/xguan/opt/jdk1.8.0_112/jre/lib/amd64/libjava.so) 7f722d119786 Ljava/io/FileOutputStream;::writeBytes (/tmp/perf-19982.map) 7f722d142778 Ljava/io/PrintStream;::print (/tmp/perf-19982.map) 7f722d12e1d4 LBusy;::main (/tmp/perf-19982.map) 7f722d0004e7 call_stub (/tmp/perf-19982.map) 7f72421d2d76 JavaCalls::call_helper(JavaValue_, methodHandle_, JavaCallArguments_, Thread_) (/home/xguan/opt/jdk1.8.0_112/jre/lib/amd64/server/libjvm.so) 7f72421ed566 jni_invoke_static(JNIEnv__, JavaValue_, jobject, JNICallType, jmethodID, JNI_ArgumentPusher_, Thread_) (/home/xguan/opt/jdk1.8.0_112/jre/lib/amd64/server/libjvm.so) 7f72421f987a jni_CallStaticVoidMethod (/home/xguan/opt/jdk1.8.0_112/jre/lib/amd64/server/libjvm.so) 7f724309ebdf JavaMain (/home/xguan/opt/jdk1.8.0_112/lib/amd64/jli/libjli.so) 7f72432b4e9a start_thread (/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libpthread-2.15.so)

    When I tried:

    ./stackcollapse-perf.pl perf.out

    Unrecognized line: java 19983 cycles: at ./stackcollapse-perf.pl line 264, <> line 3609. Use of uninitialized value $pname in string eq at ./stackcollapse-perf.pl line 246, <> line 3610.

    And the fix is to tweak the regular expression in line 177.

    opened by techtony2018 8
  • Better support for process name with spaces

    Better support for process name with spaces

    I was playing with perf today for the first time and stackcollapse-perf.pl shows some warnings processing lines with the name of process having more than one space in it, like this one:

    Plex DLNA Serve 26638 [001] 856620.530720: 2654110 cycles:

    I think it also would close issue #78

    I did not write perl code in the past, so please, test it... And thanks for FlameGraphs... ;)

    opened by skarcha 8
  • Unfoldall support

    Unfoldall support

    This adds support for https://github.com/jrudolph/perf-map-agent/pull/35

    You can see before/after here: https://gist.github.com/tjake/b762c51cc8a5ee89df290f2b4f361f81

    Note: this patch is on top of #88

    opened by tjake 7
  • [unknown] functions

    [unknown] functions

    Frequently I see in perf sript entries like this:

    httpd 18294 [008] 205996.782023:   10101010 cpu-clock:
                      2b20e5 [unknown] (/opt/remi/php56/root/usr/lib64/httpd/modules/libphp5.so)
                2b5e1de3f698 [unknown] ([unknown])
                2b5e00000013 [unknown] ([unknown])
            4c20ec834853fd89 [unknown] ([unknown])
    
    mysqld 18314 [003] 205996.822418:   10101010 cpu-clock:
                      39a7c4 prev_record_reads(st_position*, unsigned int, unsigned long long) (/usr/libexec/mysqld)
                      39c65c best_access_path(JOIN*, st_join_table*, unsigned long long, unsigned int, bool, double, st_position*, st_position*) (/usr/libexec/mysqld)
                      39e997 [unknown] (/usr/libexec/mysqld)
                      39ed0f [unknown] (/usr/libexec/mysqld)
                      39ed0f [unknown] (/usr/libexec/mysqld)
                      39ed0f [unknown] (/usr/libexec/mysqld)
    ...
    

    Then flame graph is occupied with a lot of [unknown] functions, even though some of unknowns have binary associated with them. Could you modify stackcollapse-perf.pl if it sees [unknown] but there's binary to show binary name, it could be like [/path/bin] for example. Or add option to do such replacements.

    opened by do11 6
  • collapse perf: Allow whitespace in thread names

    collapse perf: Allow whitespace in thread names

    This adds support to process perf script output for programs containing threads with whitespace in the name. For example:

    "java main 25607 4794564.109216: cycles:"

    opened by vgeorgiev 6
  • Implement state for zoom and search

    Implement state for zoom and search

    Hey @brendangregg,

    looking through old PRs I found #134 very interesting. I have implemented a history safe (meaning the browsers back and forward functions won't interfere) solution that "safes" the zoom and/or search state.

    It basically uses CSS attribute selectors[1] to match a frame ([x=100][y=200]) and uses GET parameters using the history API[2] to "store" the current zoom/search state.

    Cheers,

    Mike

    [1] https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/CSS/Attribute_selectors [2] https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/API/History_API

    opened by versable 5
  • Add pc to help identify unknown addresses.

    Add pc to help identify unknown addresses.

    Add the function's pc to the module name or the "unknown" string in order to identify where the unknown lies (useful for managed runtimes that are missing some reporting of JIT or other symbols) and to differentiate between unknowns.

    opened by gdbentley 5
  • [Linux 4.8.6] New perf script output format

    [Linux 4.8.6] New perf script output format

    I have installed kernel 4.8.6, and doing

    perf record -F 99 -a -g -- sleep 10
    

    followed by

    perf script
    

    gives

    swapper     0 [000]   147.374682:          1 cycles:ppp: 
            ffffffff810631d4 native_write_msr+0x4 ([kernel.kallsyms])
            ffffffff8100b720 intel_pmu_enable_all+0x10 ([kernel.kallsyms])
            ffffffff81007403 x86_pmu_enable+0x263 ([kernel.kallsyms])
            ffffffff8117dcc2 perf_pmu_enable+0x22 ([kernel.kallsyms])
            ffffffff8117eba1 ctx_resched+0x51 ([kernel.kallsyms])
            ffffffff8117ed90 __perf_event_enable+0x1e0 ([kernel.kallsyms])
            ffffffff81177726 event_function+0xa6 ([kernel.kallsyms])
            ffffffff81178c1f remote_function+0x3f ([kernel.kallsyms])
            ffffffff8110887b flush_smp_call_function_queue+0x7b ([kernel.kallsyms])
            ffffffff81109363 generic_smp_call_function_single_interrupt+0x13 ([kernel.kallsyms])
            ffffffff81050d87 smp_call_function_single_interrupt+0x27 ([kernel.kallsyms])
            ffffffff8173ceec call_function_single_interrupt+0x8c ([kernel.kallsyms])
            ffffffff815b3427 cpuidle_enter+0x17 ([kernel.kallsyms])
            ffffffff810c6f6b cpu_startup_entry+0x2cb ([kernel.kallsyms])
            ffffffff8172dd47 rest_init+0x77 ([kernel.kallsyms])
            ffffffff81da5191 start_kernel+0x4a7 ([kernel.kallsyms])
            ffffffff81da45d6 x86_64_start_reservations+0x2a ([kernel.kallsyms])
            ffffffff81da4724 x86_64_start_kernel+0x14c ([kernel.kallsyms])
    

    F.ex. x86_64_start_kernel+0x14c instead of x86_64_start_kernel.

    Should stackcollapse-perf.pl automatically remove this, or should there be a new option for it ?

    RHEL 7.2 w/ kernel-ml-4.8.6 from ELRepo.

    opened by jesperpedersen 5
  • optimize update_text

    optimize update_text

    Much faster implementation of text clipping, especially for Java stacks with long stack element texts. Makes zooming / unzooming less painful for big, complex FlameGraphs.

    opened by tsabirgaliev 5
  • Fixes and minor improvements for flamegraph + stack collapse

    Fixes and minor improvements for flamegraph + stack collapse

    Add a new "perl" color, allow to annotate kernel functions and have them displayed when using color groups like "perl", "java" or others

    opened by ekacnet 5
  • Flame graph enhancement (feature request)

    Flame graph enhancement (feature request)

    Hello @brendangregg , I’m really appreciated with your work. I work under system performance validation. That’s an old and complicated system with a lot of configurable options. That make possible a lot of different approach to achieve similar goals. I validate performance with a kind of silver bullet (perf + eBPF). I'm using perf as observability tool and eBPF as a tool for precise cuts. It requires to quick transfer data from perf to eBPF. I'd like to introduce a kind of feature request - quick copy function names from flame graph to eBPF scripf. I've created a quick patch which enhance flame graph (SVG) functionality with an ability to copy function names by clicking on flame graph boxes and copy resulting list into clipboard. For Windows (and Linix) users it is activating by ctrl+mouse click. For Mack users - Meta+mouse click. Please take a look to the attachment (svg_quick.zip). That's a kind of demo. I'm using it to patch existing SVG files. P.S. The idea of this patch was inspired by one of my colleagues.

    opened by ifdru74 0
  • Stackcollapse perf streaming

    Stackcollapse perf streaming

    This may be used to sample from a larger set of data:

    perf script |
    ./stackcollapse-perf.pl --stream |
    shuf -n 50000 |                              # Take 50000 random lines/samples
    ./stackcollapse-sum.pl |
    ./flamegraph.pl
    
    opened by randomstuff 0
  • stackcollapse-instruments: Update to handle

    stackcollapse-instruments: Update to handle "Deep Copy" format

    Xcode Instruments removed the export option a few years ago (I'm unsure when, but it is definitely not available in Instruments 13.0 onwards). However, you can still access the data by selecting the top symbol in the call stack and using the Edit > Deep Copy menu item, then pasting into a file. This PR updates stackcollapse-instruments.pl to handle the "Deep Copy" format.

    opened by jayrhynas 0
  • stackcollapse-perf.pl should be more memory-efficient

    stackcollapse-perf.pl should be more memory-efficient

    I'm concerned stackcollapse-perf.pl is going to blow through my available RAM; is there any way for it to be more streaming?

    image

    My perf.data file is almost 9GB, the output of perf script is 158GB, so maybe the answer is just that I have to use smaller runs. But it would be nice to be able to get a flamegraph out of this.

    Edit: It was mem-killed a couple minutes after making this issue.

    opened by JasonGross 3
  • stackcollapse-perf: fix flag in example

    stackcollapse-perf: fix flag in example

    Looks like the intent was to pass --fields, not --force.

    I was already confused when I started reading the docs for this script, using the wrong option didn't help matters any ;-)

    opened by wolfgang42 0
Releases(v1.0)
  • v1.0(Aug 19, 2017)

    I'm adding a tagged release to FlameGraph so that package maintainers can grab a static version. There's nothing really special about this v1.0 release, other than it reflecting a stable body of code that is in widespread use, and recently merged a number of fixes.

    Recent changes/fixes include:

    • fixing a small floating point issue with search's total percent which is now more accurate #140
    • stackcollapse-perf.pl now supports multiple event sources #136
    • fixing a title overlap issue with large --height #125
    • adding an optional subtitle (--subtitle) https://github.com/brendangregg/FlameGraph/commit/fad6bf74b6ab9b5ab3b89aec04e0d1b5effaf026
    • embedded notes (--notes) https://github.com/brendangregg/FlameGraph/commit/cef340b208c409c7c1fba5be1c42c4cbb442174d
    • improving code annotations for Linux perf (used by some palettes) https://github.com/brendangregg/FlameGraph/commit/99972c0ef5d70778a54d83c6641e95403479612c https://github.com/brendangregg/FlameGraph/commit/e83d1bcf33c313f4b6c754799646fe038b9fad0f
    • add --addrs option to include addresses on unknown frames #124
    • treat input as UTF-8, to avoid some unicode characters breaking zoom #133

    And some minor improvements to the test files.

    Source code(tar.gz)
    Source code(zip)
Owner
Brendan Gregg
Cloud computing performance architect and engineer.
Brendan Gregg
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