Protocol Buffers - Google's data interchange format


Protocol Buffers - Google's data interchange format

Copyright 2008 Google Inc.


Protocol Buffers (a.k.a., protobuf) are Google's language-neutral, platform-neutral, extensible mechanism for serializing structured data. You can find protobuf's documentation on the Google Developers site.

This README file contains protobuf installation instructions. To install protobuf, you need to install the protocol compiler (used to compile .proto files) and the protobuf runtime for your chosen programming language.

Protocol Compiler Installation

The protocol compiler is written in C++. If you are using C++, please follow the C++ Installation Instructions to install protoc along with the C++ runtime.

For non-C++ users, the simplest way to install the protocol compiler is to download a pre-built binary from our release page:

In the downloads section of each release, you can find pre-built binaries in zip packages: protoc-$VERSION-$ It contains the protoc binary as well as a set of standard .proto files distributed along with protobuf.

If you are looking for an old version that is not available in the release page, check out the maven repo here:

These pre-built binaries are only provided for released versions. If you want to use the github master version at HEAD, or you need to modify protobuf code, or you are using C++, it's recommended to build your own protoc binary from source.

If you would like to build protoc binary from source, see the C++ Installation Instructions.

Protobuf Runtime Installation

Protobuf supports several different programming languages. For each programming language, you can find instructions in the corresponding source directory about how to install protobuf runtime for that specific language:

Language Source Ubuntu MacOS Windows
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Dart dart-lang/protobuf Build Status

Quick Start

The best way to learn how to use protobuf is to follow the tutorials in our developer guide:

If you want to learn from code examples, take a look at the examples in the examples directory.


The complete documentation for Protocol Buffers is available via the web at:

  • Missing value/null support for scalar value types in proto 3

    Missing value/null support for scalar value types in proto 3

    From the protobuf wire format we can tell whether a specific field exists or not. And in protobuf 2 generated code, all fields have a "HasXXX" method to tell whether the field exists or not in code. However in proto 3, we lost that ability. E.g. now we can't tell if a int32 field is missing, or has a value of 0 (default for int32 type).

    In many scenario, we need the ability to differentiate missing vs default value (basically nullable support for scalar types).

    Feng suggest workarounds:

    1. Use a wrapper message, such as google.protobuf.Int32Value. In proto3, message fields still have has-bits.
    2. Use an oneof. For example: message Test1 { oneof a_oneof { int32 a = 1; } } then you can check test.getAOneofCase().

    However, this requires change the message definition, which is a no go if you need to keep the message compatible while upgrade from proto2 to proto 3.

    We need to add back the support to detect whether a scalar type field exist or not.

    More discussion here:!topic/protobuf/6eJKPXXoJ88

    question proto3 
    opened by lostindark 152
  • python: use relative imports in generated modules

    python: use relative imports in generated modules

    I have a package foo that looks like this:

    ├── data
    │   ├── a.proto
    │   └── b.proto
    └── generated
    # a.proto
    package foo;
    # b.proto
    import "a.proto";
    package foo;

    Generate the code: protoc -I ./data --python_out=generated data/a.proto data/b.proto. Here is the failure:

    Python 3.5.1 (default, Mar  3 2016, 09:29:07) 
    [GCC 5.3.0] on linux
    Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
    >>> from generated import b_pb2
    Traceback (most recent call last):
      File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
      File "/home/corentih/repro/generated/", line 16, in <module>
        import a_pb2
    ImportError: No module named 'a_pb2'

    This is beacuse the generated code looks like this:

    import a_pb2

    If the import was relative it would actually work:

    from . import a_pb2
    opened by little-dude 101
  • Investigate support for Unity

    Investigate support for Unity

    quoting @jskeet: "There's suspicion the current version of C# protobufs won't work with Unity, but we can add another build target for that later when we find a need - we can create a new minor version of the NuGet package for that with no problems.

    My experience with the "old" protobuf-csharp-port is that Unity on iOS has various issues, so I think we'll want to investigate them pretty thoroughly before trying to support it anyway - and we may need to conditionally compile out some features. We'll see... but I'd like to avoid having Unity support block a dotnetcore release."

    also see #638

    enhancement c# 
    opened by jtattermusch 83
  • [CSharp] Allow Span<byte>-based parsing in CodedInputStream

    [CSharp] Allow Span-based parsing in CodedInputStream

    IMO C# protobuf implementation could strongly benefit performance-wise from allowing some unsafe code.


    First of all I am not saying that unsafe should be enabled in every build/every platform, having 100% managed library is always a nice feature. All I am suggesting is again some conditional feature on some platform.

    However there is a trend to move towards unsafe mixing we can observe in .NET Core. For example a lot of .NET Core libraries use unsafe code due to need to interop with different kind of unmanaged libraries or just to handle AOT compiled code.

    API change

    Today CodedInputStream works in two modes: streaming with byte[] buffer and with a fixed buffer.

    It would be really nice to be able to provide byte * and length to CodedInputStream constructor.

    Alternatively we could create an UnmanagedCodedInputStream which would work on unmanaged memory.

    This would require to abstracting CodedInputStream as an interface

    Affected APIs

    Async API #3166 makes absolutely no sense for UnmanagedCodedInputStream because it assumes everything have been already read.


    1. It's extremely useful for interop (See scenario 1)
    2. It can work with stackalloc (See scenario 2)
    3. It allows even quicker deserialization we can quicker deserialize byte * to for example fixed-size primitive types by pointer dereference. (Endiannes might be a problem here)


    Scenario 1. NoSQL Database

    User is using native NoSQL database (for example RocksDB/LevelDB) and is using protobuf for data persistence. Database returns native allocated pointer with buffer. Instead of copying entire buffer to the memory user can deserialize record straight from the returned memory native memory and then free the pointer. Very little GC is involved and there is practically no overhead.

    Scenario 2. Stackalloc-ated buffers

    For performance reasons to decrease heap allocations and allocate buffer on stack. This scenario can be alternatively handled by Buffer Pooling, however stackalloc seems to be more efficient.

    Affected by - this work in progress improvement can allow to achieve the same goals in a managed way by providing some platform improvements.

    enhancement c# P3 
    opened by mkosieradzki 70
  • proto3 and unknown fields

    proto3 and unknown fields

    I know that unknown fields have been removed from proto3, but I am trying to get an explanation about why this change was made and if there is any way to replicate that behavior in proto3.

    Thanks so much.

    referred from golang/protobuf#25

    opened by joshuarubin 69
  • Change C# reflection to avoid using expression trees

    Change C# reflection to avoid using expression trees

    This should work on Unity, Mono and .NET 3.5 as far as I'm aware. It won't work on platforms where reflection itself is prohibited, but that's a non-starter basically.

    Creating a PR to start with, but I'd like to test it in other environments before merging. Once this is in, we can look at potentially officially supporting .NET 3.5 and Unity (#644).

    cla: yes 
    opened by jskeet 68
  • Add CodedInputReader and CodedOutputWriter

    Add CodedInputReader and CodedOutputWriter

    This is very WIP/rough. I had to create a new ISpanMessage<T> interface, and some areas do not have full support for it yet (they are throwing NotSupportException right now).

    Nothing has been done on the code gen side. The way the reader and writer are used compared to the streams is almost identitical so code gen changes should be minimal.

    Perf numbers:

    WriteToByteArray and ParseFromByteArray both allocate the byte array. This matches how serialization from gRPC works today.

    WriteToBufferWriter writes to an IBufferWriter<byte> and doesn't allocate at all. For a small message CodedOutputWriter is slower than CodedOutputStream. It is faster for medium/large messages. Still some tuning to be done.

    ParseFromReadOnlySequence reads from a sequence. Its allocations are related to creating the message and whatever strings exist on the message. Using CodedInputReader is consistently faster than CodedInputStream.

    |                    Method |     Mean |     Error |    StdDev |   Median | Gen 0/1k Op | Gen 1/1k Op | Gen 2/1k Op | Allocated Memory/Op |
    |-------------------------- |---------:|----------:|----------:|---------:|------------:|------------:|------------:|--------------------:|
    |          WriteToByteArray | 377.5 ns | 11.210 ns | 32.876 ns | 370.3 ns |      0.0682 |           - |           - |               288 B |
    |        ParseFromByteArray | 385.2 ns |  8.280 ns | 23.624 ns | 377.5 ns |      0.2666 |           - |           - |              1120 B |
    |       WriteToBufferWriter | 294.0 ns |  3.658 ns |  3.421 ns | 293.6 ns |           - |           - |           - |                   - |
    | ParseFromReadOnlySequence | 338.6 ns |  6.696 ns | 10.621 ns | 336.0 ns |      0.1903 |           - |           - |               800 B |

    @jskeet @davidfowl @JunTaoLuo @jtattermusch

    cla: yes c# release notes: yes 
    opened by JamesNK 58
  • kotlin  support request

    kotlin support request

    please support convert to kotlin

    opened by MartinDong 56
  • Segmentation Fault (Segfault) on the ruby gem

    Segmentation Fault (Segfault) on the ruby gem

    Hello there,

    The following segmentation fault pops up upon running

    ruby -e 'require "google/cloud/trace"'

    inside of a Docker container based on ruby:2.5-alpine (alpine 3.7.0)

    Gemfile.lock (partial)

        google-cloud-core (1.2.0)
          google-cloud-env (~> 1.0)
        google-cloud-env (1.0.1)
          faraday (~> 0.11)
        google-cloud-trace (0.31.0)
          google-cloud-core (~> 1.2)
          google-gax (~> 1.0)
          stackdriver-core (~> 1.3)
        google-gax (1.0.1)
          google-protobuf (~> 3.2)
          googleapis-common-protos (>= 1.3.5, < 2.0)
          googleauth (~> 0.6.2)
          grpc (>= 1.7.2, < 2.0)
          rly (~> 0.2.3)
        google-protobuf (
        googleapis-common-protos (1.3.7)
          google-protobuf (~> 3.0)
          googleapis-common-protos-types (~> 1.0)
          grpc (~> 1.0)
        googleapis-common-protos-types (1.0.1)
          google-protobuf (~> 3.0)
        googleauth (0.6.2)
          faraday (~> 0.12)
          jwt (>= 1.4, < 3.0)
          logging (~> 2.0)
          memoist (~> 0.12)
          multi_json (~> 1.11)
          os (~> 0.9)
          signet (~> 0.7)
        grpc (1.10.0)
          google-protobuf (~> 3.1)
          googleapis-common-protos-types (~> 1.0.0)
          googleauth (>= 0.5.1, < 0.7)

    Ruby Segfault Dump

    /usr/local/bundle/gems/google-protobuf- [BUG] Segmentation fault at 0x0000000000016e16
    ruby 2.5.1p57 (2018-03-29 revision 63029) [x86_64-linux-musl]
    -- Control frame information -----------------------------------------------
    c:0039 p:---- s:0240 e:000239 CFUNC  :msgclass
    c:0038 p:0022 s:0236 e:000235 CLASS  /usr/local/bundle/gems/google-protobuf-
    c:0037 p:0007 s:0233 e:000232 CLASS  /usr/local/bundle/gems/google-protobuf-
    c:0036 p:0033 s:0230 E:001380 TOP    /usr/local/bundle/gems/google-protobuf- [FINISH]
    c:0035 p:---- s:0227 e:000226 CFUNC  :require
    c:0034 p:0110 s:0222 e:000221 METHOD /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_require.rb:59
    c:0033 p:0013 s:0210 e:000209 TOP    /usr/local/bundle/gems/googleapis-common-protos-types-1.0.1/lib/google/rpc/status_pb.rb:6 [FINISH]
    c:0032 p:---- s:0207 e:000206 CFUNC  :require
    c:0031 p:0110 s:0202 e:000201 METHOD /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_require.rb:59
    c:0030 p:0013 s:0190 e:000189 TOP    /usr/local/bundle/gems/grpc-1.10.0-x86_64-linux/src/ruby/lib/grpc/google_rpc_status_utils.rb:16 [FINISH]
    c:0029 p:---- s:0187 e:000186 CFUNC  :require
    c:0028 p:0110 s:0182 e:000181 METHOD /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_require.rb:59
    c:0027 p:0013 s:0170 e:000169 TOP    /usr/local/bundle/gems/google-gax-1.0.1/lib/google/gax/grpc.rb:31 [FINISH]
    c:0026 p:---- s:0167 e:000166 CFUNC  :require
    c:0025 p:0110 s:0162 e:000161 METHOD /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_require.rb:59
    c:0024 p:0013 s:0150 e:000149 TOP    /usr/local/bundle/gems/google-gax-1.0.1/lib/google/gax/errors.rb:32 [FINISH]
    c:0023 p:---- s:0147 e:000146 CFUNC  :require
    c:0022 p:0110 s:0142 e:000141 METHOD /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_require.rb:59
    c:0021 p:0013 s:0130 e:000129 TOP    /usr/local/bundle/gems/google-gax-1.0.1/lib/google/gax/api_callable.rb:32 [FINISH]
    c:0020 p:---- s:0127 e:000126 CFUNC  :require
    c:0019 p:0110 s:0122 e:000121 METHOD /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_require.rb:59
    c:0018 p:0006 s:0110 e:000109 TOP    /usr/local/bundle/gems/google-gax-1.0.1/lib/google/gax.rb:30 [FINISH]
    c:0017 p:---- s:0107 e:000106 CFUNC  :require
    c:0016 p:0110 s:0102 e:000101 METHOD /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_require.rb:59
    c:0015 p:0020 s:0090 e:000089 TOP    /usr/local/bundle/gems/google-cloud-trace-0.31.0/lib/google/cloud/trace/v1/trace_service_client.rb:28 [FINISH]
    c:0014 p:---- s:0087 e:000086 CFUNC  :require
    c:0013 p:0110 s:0082 e:000081 METHOD /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_require.rb:59
    c:0012 p:0006 s:0070 e:000069 TOP    /usr/local/bundle/gems/google-cloud-trace-0.31.0/lib/google/cloud/trace/v1.rb:16 [FINISH]
    c:0011 p:---- s:0067 e:000066 CFUNC  :require
    c:0010 p:0110 s:0062 e:000061 METHOD /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_require.rb:59
    c:0009 p:0020 s:0050 e:000049 TOP    /usr/local/bundle/gems/google-cloud-trace-0.31.0/lib/google/cloud/trace/service.rb:18 [FINISH]
    c:0008 p:---- s:0047 e:000046 CFUNC  :require
    c:0007 p:0110 s:0042 e:000041 METHOD /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_require.rb:59
    c:0006 p:0062 s:0030 e:000029 TOP    /usr/local/bundle/gems/google-cloud-trace-0.31.0/lib/google/cloud/trace.rb:24 [FINISH]
    c:0005 p:---- s:0027 e:000026 CFUNC  :require
    c:0004 p:0091 s:0022 e:000021 RESCUE /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_require.rb:135
    c:0003 p:0376 s:0018 e:000017 METHOD /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_require.rb:39
    c:0002 p:0006 s:0006 e:000005 EVAL   -e:1 [FINISH]
    c:0001 p:0000 s:0003 E:000d00 (none) [FINISH]
    -- Ruby level backtrace information ----------------------------------------
    -e:1:in `<main>'
    /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_require.rb:39:in `require'
    /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_require.rb:135:in `rescue in require'
    /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_require.rb:135:in `require'
    /usr/local/bundle/gems/google-cloud-trace-0.31.0/lib/google/cloud/trace.rb:24:in `<top (required)>'
    /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_require.rb:59:in `require'
    /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_require.rb:59:in `require'
    /usr/local/bundle/gems/google-cloud-trace-0.31.0/lib/google/cloud/trace/service.rb:18:in `<top (required)>'
    /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_require.rb:59:in `require'
    /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_require.rb:59:in `require'
    /usr/local/bundle/gems/google-cloud-trace-0.31.0/lib/google/cloud/trace/v1.rb:16:in `<top (required)>'
    /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_require.rb:59:in `require'
    /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_require.rb:59:in `require'
    /usr/local/bundle/gems/google-cloud-trace-0.31.0/lib/google/cloud/trace/v1/trace_service_client.rb:28:in `<top (required)>'
    /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_require.rb:59:in `require'
    /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_require.rb:59:in `require'
    /usr/local/bundle/gems/google-gax-1.0.1/lib/google/gax.rb:30:in `<top (required)>'
    /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_require.rb:59:in `require'
    /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_require.rb:59:in `require'
    /usr/local/bundle/gems/google-gax-1.0.1/lib/google/gax/api_callable.rb:32:in `<top (required)>'
    /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_require.rb:59:in `require'
    /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_require.rb:59:in `require'
    /usr/local/bundle/gems/google-gax-1.0.1/lib/google/gax/errors.rb:32:in `<top (required)>'
    /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_require.rb:59:in `require'
    /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_require.rb:59:in `require'
    /usr/local/bundle/gems/google-gax-1.0.1/lib/google/gax/grpc.rb:31:in `<top (required)>'
    /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_require.rb:59:in `require'
    /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_require.rb:59:in `require'
    /usr/local/bundle/gems/grpc-1.10.0-x86_64-linux/src/ruby/lib/grpc/google_rpc_status_utils.rb:16:in `<top (required)>'
    /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_require.rb:59:in `require'
    /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_require.rb:59:in `require'
    /usr/local/bundle/gems/googleapis-common-protos-types-1.0.1/lib/google/rpc/status_pb.rb:6:in `<top (required)>'
    /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_require.rb:59:in `require'
    /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_require.rb:59:in `require'
    /usr/local/bundle/gems/google-protobuf- `<top (required)>'
    /usr/local/bundle/gems/google-protobuf- `<module:Google>'
    /usr/local/bundle/gems/google-protobuf- `<module:Protobuf>'
    /usr/local/bundle/gems/google-protobuf- `msgclass'
    -- Machine register context ------------------------------------------------
     RIP: 0x0000000000016e16 RBP: 0x00007ffda9865780 RSP: 0x00007ffda9865738
     RAX: 0x000000000000000a RBX: 0x000055d0f91e09c0 RCX: 0x0000000000000008
     RDX: 0x0000000000000001 RDI: 0x00007ffda9865740 RSI: 0x00007ffda986574e
      R8: 0x0000000000000003  R9: 0xffffffffffffffff R10: 0x0000000000000000
     R11: 0x000055d0f92be2c0 R12: 0x0000000000000000 R13: 0x0000000000000002
     R14: 0x00007ffda98657e8 R15: 0x000055d0f91e09c0 EFL: 0x0000000000010246
    -- Other runtime information -----------------------------------------------
    * Loaded script: -e
    * Loaded features:
        1 thread.rb
        4 /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/x86_64-linux-musl/enc/
        5 /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/x86_64-linux-musl/enc/trans/
        6 /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/x86_64-linux-musl/rbconfig.rb
        7 /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/compatibility.rb
        8 /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/defaults.rb
        9 /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/deprecate.rb
       10 /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/errors.rb
       11 /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/version.rb
       12 /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/requirement.rb
       13 /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/platform.rb
       14 /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/basic_specification.rb
       15 /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/stub_specification.rb
       16 /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/util/list.rb
       17 /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/x86_64-linux-musl/
       18 /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/uri/rfc2396_parser.rb
       19 /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/uri/rfc3986_parser.rb
       20 /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/uri/common.rb
       21 /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/uri/generic.rb
       22 /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/uri/ftp.rb
       23 /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/uri/http.rb
       24 /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/uri/https.rb
       25 /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/uri/ldap.rb
       26 /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/uri/ldaps.rb
       27 /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/uri/mailto.rb
       28 /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/uri.rb
       29 /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/specification.rb
       30 /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/exceptions.rb
       31 /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/dependency.rb
       32 /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_gem.rb
       33 /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/monitor.rb
       34 /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_require.rb
       35 /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems.rb
       36 /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/path_support.rb
       37 /usr/local/lib/ruby/gems/2.5.0/gems/did_you_mean-1.2.0/lib/did_you_mean/version.rb
       38 /usr/local/lib/ruby/gems/2.5.0/gems/did_you_mean-1.2.0/lib/did_you_mean/core_ext/name_error.rb
       39 /usr/local/lib/ruby/gems/2.5.0/gems/did_you_mean-1.2.0/lib/did_you_mean/levenshtein.rb
       40 /usr/local/lib/ruby/gems/2.5.0/gems/did_you_mean-1.2.0/lib/did_you_mean/jaro_winkler.rb
       41 /usr/local/lib/ruby/gems/2.5.0/gems/did_you_mean-1.2.0/lib/did_you_mean/spell_checker.rb
       42 /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/delegate.rb
       43 /usr/local/lib/ruby/gems/2.5.0/gems/did_you_mean-1.2.0/lib/did_you_mean/spell_checkers/name_error_checkers/class_name_checker.rb
       44 /usr/local/lib/ruby/gems/2.5.0/gems/did_you_mean-1.2.0/lib/did_you_mean/spell_checkers/name_error_checkers/variable_name_checker.rb
       45 /usr/local/lib/ruby/gems/2.5.0/gems/did_you_mean-1.2.0/lib/did_you_mean/spell_checkers/name_error_checkers.rb
       46 /usr/local/lib/ruby/gems/2.5.0/gems/did_you_mean-1.2.0/lib/did_you_mean/spell_checkers/method_name_checker.rb
       47 /usr/local/lib/ruby/gems/2.5.0/gems/did_you_mean-1.2.0/lib/did_you_mean/spell_checkers/key_error_checker.rb
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       56 /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/cgi/util.rb
       57 /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/cgi/cookie.rb
       58 /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/cgi.rb
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       97 /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/net/http/requests.rb
       98 /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/net/http/response.rb
       99 /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/net/http/responses.rb
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      241 /usr/local/bundle/gems/google-protobuf-
      242 /usr/local/bundle/gems/google-protobuf-
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    7f6c3da2a000-7f6c3da2e000 r--p 00044000 08:06 9849396                    /lib/
    7f6c3da2e000-7f6c3da32000 rw-p 00048000 08:06 9849396                    /lib/
    7f6c3da32000-7f6c3dc86000 r-xp 00000000 08:06 155415                     /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/x86_64-linux-musl/
    7f6c3dc86000-7f6c3dc8a000 r--p 00054000 08:06 155415                     /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/x86_64-linux-musl/
    7f6c3dc8a000-7f6c3dc8b000 rw-p 00058000 08:06 155415                     /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/x86_64-linux-musl/
    7f6c3dc8b000-7f6c3de8d000 r-xp 00000000 08:06 155399                     /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/x86_64-linux-musl/enc/
    7f6c3de8d000-7f6c3de8e000 r--p 00002000 08:06 155399                     /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/x86_64-linux-musl/enc/
    7f6c3de8e000-7f6c3de8f000 rw-p 00003000 08:06 155399                     /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/x86_64-linux-musl/enc/
    7f6c3de8f000-7f6c3e0a4000 r-xp 00000000 08:06 9849398                    /lib/
    7f6c3e0a4000-7f6c3e0a5000 r--p 00015000 08:06 9849398                    /lib/
    7f6c3e0a5000-7f6c3e0a6000 rw-p 00016000 08:06 9849398                    /lib/
    7f6c3e0a6000-7f6c3e2b7000 r-xp 00000000 08:06 155431                     /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/x86_64-linux-musl/
    7f6c3e2b7000-7f6c3e2b8000 r--p 00011000 08:06 155431                     /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/x86_64-linux-musl/
    7f6c3e2b8000-7f6c3e2b9000 rw-p 00012000 08:06 155431                     /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/x86_64-linux-musl/
    7f6c3e2b9000-7f6c3e4ba000 r-xp 00000000 08:06 155408                     /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/x86_64-linux-musl/io/
    7f6c3e4ba000-7f6c3e4bb000 r--p 00001000 08:06 155408                     /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/x86_64-linux-musl/io/
    7f6c3e4bb000-7f6c3e4bc000 rw-p 00002000 08:06 155408                     /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/x86_64-linux-musl/io/
    7f6c3e4bc000-7f6c3e6e8000 r-xp 00000000 08:06 155427                     /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/x86_64-linux-musl/
    7f6c3e6e8000-7f6c3e6e9000 r--p 0002c000 08:06 155427                     /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/x86_64-linux-musl/
    7f6c3e6e9000-7f6c3e6ea000 rw-p 0002d000 08:06 155427                     /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/x86_64-linux-musl/
    7f6c3e6ea000-7f6c3e8f3000 r-xp 00000000 08:06 155411                     /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/x86_64-linux-musl/json/ext/
    7f6c3e8f3000-7f6c3e8f4000 r--p 00009000 08:06 155411                     /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/x86_64-linux-musl/json/ext/
    7f6c3e8f4000-7f6c3e8f5000 rw-p 0000a000 08:06 155411                     /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/x86_64-linux-musl/json/ext/
    7f6c3e8f5000-7f6c3eafa000 r-xp 00000000 08:06 155412                     /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/x86_64-linux-musl/json/ext/
    7f6c3eafa000-7f6c3eafb000 r--p 00005000 08:06 155412                     /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/x86_64-linux-musl/json/ext/
    7f6c3eafb000-7f6c3eafc000 rw-p 00006000 08:06 155412                     /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/x86_64-linux-musl/json/ext/
    7f6c3eafc000-7f6c3ecfe000 r-xp 00000000 08:06 155327                     /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/x86_64-linux-musl/cgi/
    7f6c3ecfe000-7f6c3ecff000 r--p 00002000 08:06 155327                     /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/x86_64-linux-musl/cgi/
    7f6c3ecff000-7f6c3ed00000 rw-p 00003000 08:06 155327                     /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/x86_64-linux-musl/cgi/
    7f6c3ed00000-7f6c3ef08000 r-xp 00000000 08:06 155428                     /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/x86_64-linux-musl/
    7f6c3ef08000-7f6c3ef09000 r--p 00008000 08:06 155428                     /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/x86_64-linux-musl/
    7f6c3ef09000-7f6c3ef0a000 rw-p 00009000 08:06 155428                     /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/x86_64-linux-musl/
    7f6c3ef0a000-7f6c3f10c000 r-xp 00000000 08:06 155386                     /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/x86_64-linux-musl/enc/trans/
    7f6c3f10c000-7f6c3f10d000 r--p 00002000 08:06 155386                     /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/x86_64-linux-musl/enc/trans/
    7f6c3f10d000-7f6c3f10e000 rw-p 00003000 08:06 155386                     /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/x86_64-linux-musl/enc/trans/
    7f6c3f10e000-7f6c3f30f000 r-xp 00000000 08:06 155343                     /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/x86_64-linux-musl/enc/
    7f6c3f30f000-7f6c3f310000 r--p 00001000 08:06 155343                     /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/x86_64-linux-musl/enc/
    7f6c3f310000-7f6c3f311000 rw-p 00002000 08:06 155343                     /usr/local/lib/ruby/2.5.0/x86_64-linux-musl/enc/
    7f6c3f311000-7f6c3f824000 r-xp 00000000 08:06 154493                     /usr/local/lib/
    7f6c3f824000-7f6c3f82c000 r--p 00313000 08:06 154493                     /usr/local/lib/
    7f6c3f82c000-7f6c3f82d000 rw-p 0031b000 08:06 154493                     /usr/local/lib/
    7f6c3f82d000-7f6c3f83b000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0
    7f6c3f83b000-7f6c3f8c4000 r-xp 00000000 08:06 154211                     /lib/
    7f6c3f8d2000-7f6c3f916000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0
    7f6c3f916000-7f6c3f9ba000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0
    7f6c3f9ba000-7f6c3f9bb000 r--s 00000000 08:06 9723329                    /etc/localtime
    7f6c3f9bb000-7f6c3f9bd000 ---p 00000000 00:00 0
    7f6c3f9bd000-7f6c3fac3000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0
    7f6c3fac3000-7f6c3fac4000 r--p 00088000 08:06 154211                     /lib/
    7f6c3fac4000-7f6c3fac5000 rw-p 00089000 08:06 154211                     /lib/
    7f6c3fac5000-7f6c3fac8000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0
    7ffda984e000-7ffda986f000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0                          [stack]
    7ffda99f5000-7ffda99f8000 r--p 00000000 00:00 0                          [vvar]
    7ffda99f8000-7ffda99fa000 r-xp 00000000 00:00 0                          [vdso]
    ffffffffff600000-ffffffffff601000 r-xp 00000000 00:00 0                  [vsyscall]
    You may have encountered a bug in the Ruby interpreter or extension libraries.
    Bug reports are welcome.
    For details:
    Aborted (core dumped)
    bug ruby P2 
    opened by larribas 51
  • Make C++ implementation C++11 only.

    Make C++ implementation C++11 only.

    C++11 has been out for several years and we are thinking of moving to allow C++11 features from being used in the code base. That means the implementation will not be able to compile if you don't have a C++11 compiler.

    We may create a branch that works for C++98. The branch will only accept bug fixes, but not new features, optimization, etc

    Please reply in this thread if you think this would be an issue for your project.

    opened by liujisi 48
  • deps: add j2objc annotations

    deps: add j2objc annotations

    @perezd this will be needed on the next sync with google3. Until then it's harmless.

    cla: yes java release notes: no 
    opened by elharo 0
  • should update versions in java/ should update versions in java/

    per @acozzette If we want to keep these version numbers up to date then you might want to just update them in, which updates all the other versions.

    enhancement java 
    opened by elharo 0
  • Update to allow proto2 imports in proto3

    Update to allow proto2 imports in proto3


    cla: yes ruby protoc release notes: yes 
    opened by zhangskz 1
  • Fix typo in Descriptor docstring

    Fix typo in Descriptor docstring


    cla: yes 
    opened by VasilyFomin 2
  • Java: Create UnknownFieldSet Builder lazily

    Java: Create UnknownFieldSet Builder lazily

    The generated Java code always allocates a local UnknownFieldSet.Builder which adds up over time in object churn especially in small messages. Unknown fields are rather uncommon in our environment so in most cases this allocation is unnecessary.

    Here the generated code of a custom String message we use in our product (it shows up in our metrics which means that this is not covered by escape analysis):

    string proto

    private String(
            throws {
          if (extensionRegistry == null) {
            throw new java.lang.NullPointerException();
          int mutable_bitField0_ = 0;
 unknownFields =
          try {
            boolean done = false;
            while (!done) {
              int tag = input.readTag();
              switch (tag) {
                case 0:
                  done = true;
                default: {
                  if (!parseUnknownField(
                      input, unknownFields, extensionRegistry, tag)) {
                    done = true;
          } finally {
            this.unknownFields =;

    unknownFields could be initialized with null and only allocated in the default case when an actual unknown field is received. In the finally block a check for null would be necessary.

    enhancement java 
    opened by chietti 2
  • PROTOBUF_FUTURE_MUST_USE_RESULT   undeclared identifier?

    PROTOBUF_FUTURE_MUST_USE_RESULT undeclared identifier?

    error: use of undeclared identifier 'PROTOBUF_FUTURE_MUST_USE_RESULT' PROTOBUF_FUTURE_MUST_USE_RESULT ::Rasterization* release_rasterization();

    opened by Gzzgz 2
  • Adopt pure ruby DSL implementation for JRuby

    Adopt pure ruby DSL implementation for JRuby

    Also squashes all current JRuby test failures.

    Includes all changes separately posted under #8954

    cla: yes ruby release notes: yes 
    opened by JasonLunn 0
  • [KOTLIN] Null-safety for parseFrom()

    [KOTLIN] Null-safety for parseFrom()

    What language does this apply to?


    Describe the problem you are trying to solve.

    We ran into an issue, were we had NullPointerExceptions from trying to parse null values using MyJavaProtoClass.parseFrom(someByteArray) in Kotlin.

    Describe the solution you'd like

    Having a generated, null-safe function in Kotlin.

    MyProtoClass.parseFrom(byteArray: ByteArray): MyProtoClass

    Describe alternatives you've considered

    I was thinking about implementing an extension function that finds the parseFrom function from the java class and wraps it in a try/catch, returning null in case of a NullPointerException. However, with this approach I'd either have to search on every call or somehow keep a reference to the function. A direct call through a generated Kotlin method would make more sense.

    opened by Salzian 0
  • Fix cmake install for protoc component

    Fix cmake install for protoc component


    • RUNTIME DESTINATION for protoc TARGET is not given a COMPONENT option
    cla: yes release notes: no 
    opened by johanmoe 4
  • Fix for issue #8484, constant initialization doesn't compile in msvc clang-cl environment

    Fix for issue #8484, constant initialization doesn't compile in msvc clang-cl environment


    cla: yes c++ release notes: yes 
    opened by Eddie-cz 2
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