As easy as /aitch-tee-tee-pie/ 🥧 Modern, user-friendly command-line HTTP client for the API era. JSON support, colors, sessions, downloads, plugins & more. https://twitter.com/httpie

Overview

HTTPie: human-friendly CLI HTTP client for the API era

HTTPie (pronounced aitch-tee-tee-pie) is a command-line HTTP client. Its goal is to make CLI interaction with web services as human-friendly as possible. HTTPie is designed for testing, debugging, and generally interacting with APIs & HTTP servers. The http & https commands allow for creating and sending arbitrary HTTP requests. They use simple and natural syntax and provide formatted and colorized output.

Stable documentation Latest version released on PyPi Build status of the master branch on Mac/Linux/Windows Test coverage Download count Chat on Discord

HTTPie in action

Contents

1   About this document

This documentation is best viewed at httpie.org/docs.

You can select your corresponding HTTPie version as well as run examples directly from the browser using a termible.io embedded terminal.

If you are reading this on GitHub, then this text covers the current development version. You are invited to submit fixes and improvements to the the docs by editing README.rst.

2   Main features

  • Expressive and intuitive syntax
  • Formatted and colorized terminal output
  • Built-in JSON support
  • Forms and file uploads
  • HTTPS, proxies, and authentication
  • Arbitrary request data
  • Custom headers
  • Persistent sessions
  • Wget-like downloads
  • Linux, macOS and Windows support
  • Plugins
  • Documentation
  • Test coverage

HTTPie compared to cURL

3   Installation

3.1   macOS

On macOS, HTTPie can be installed via Homebrew (recommended):

$ brew install httpie

A MacPorts port is also available:

$ port install httpie

3.2   Linux

Most Linux distributions provide a package that can be installed using the system package manager, for example:

# Debian, Ubuntu, etc.
$ apt install httpie
# Fedora
$ dnf install httpie
# CentOS, RHEL, ...
$ yum install httpie
# Gentoo
$ emerge httpie
# Arch Linux
$ pacman -S httpie

3.3   Windows, etc.

A universal installation method (that works on Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, …, and always provides the latest version) is to use pip:

# Make sure we have an up-to-date version of pip and setuptools:
$ python -m pip install --upgrade pip setuptools

$ python -m pip install --upgrade httpie

(If pip installation fails for some reason, you can try easy_install httpie as a fallback.)

3.4   Python version

Python version 3.6 or greater is required.

3.5   Unstable version

You can also install the latest unreleased development version directly from the master branch on GitHub. It is a work-in-progress of a future stable release so the experience might be not as smooth.

Build status of the master branch on Mac/Linux/Windows

On macOS you can install it with Homebrew:

$ brew uninstall --force httpie
$ brew install --HEAD httpie

Otherwise with pip:

$ pip install --upgrade https://github.com/httpie/httpie/archive/master.tar.gz

Verify that now we have the current development version identifier with the -dev suffix, for example:

$ http --version
# 2.0.0-dev

4   Usage

Hello World:

$ https httpie.io/hello

Synopsis:

$ http [flags] [METHOD] URL [ITEM [ITEM]]

See also http --help.

4.1   Examples

Custom HTTP method, HTTP headers and JSON data:

$ http PUT pie.dev/put X-API-Token:123 name=John

Submitting forms:

$ http -f POST pie.dev/post hello=World

See the request that is being sent using one of the output options:

$ http -v pie.dev/get

Build and print a request without sending it using offline mode:

$ http --offline pie.dev/post hello=offline

Use GitHub API to post a comment on an issue with authentication:

$ http -a USERNAME POST https://api.github.com/repos/httpie/httpie/issues/83/comments body='HTTPie is awesome! :heart:'

Upload a file using redirected input:

$ http pie.dev/post < files/data.json

Download a file and save it via redirected output:

$ http pie.dev/image/png > image.png

Download a file wget style:

$ http --download pie.dev/image/png

Use named sessions to make certain aspects of the communication persistent between requests to the same host:

$ http --session=logged-in -a username:password pie.dev/get API-Key:123
$ http --session=logged-in pie.dev/headers

Set a custom Host header to work around missing DNS records:

$ http localhost:8000 Host:example.com

5   HTTP method

The name of the HTTP method comes right before the URL argument:

$ http DELETE pie.dev/delete

Which looks similar to the actual Request-Line that is sent:

DELETE /delete HTTP/1.1

When the METHOD argument is omitted from the command, HTTPie defaults to either GET (with no request data) or POST (with request data).

6   Request URL

The only information HTTPie needs to perform a request is a URL.

The default scheme is http:// and can be omitted from the argument:

$ http example.org
# => http://example.org

HTTPie also installs an https executable, where the default scheme is https://:

$ https example.org
# => https://example.org

6.1   Querystring parameters

If you find yourself manually constructing URLs with querystring parameters on the terminal, you may appreciate the param==value syntax for appending URL parameters.

With that, you don’t have to worry about escaping the & separators for your shell. Additionally, any special characters in the parameter name or value get automatically URL-escaped (as opposed to parameters specified in the full URL, which HTTPie doesn’t modify).

$ http https://api.github.com/search/repositories q==httpie per_page==1
GET /search/repositories?q=httpie&per_page=1 HTTP/1.1

6.2   URL shortcuts for localhost

Additionally, curl-like shorthand for localhost is supported. This means that, for example :3000 would expand to http://localhost:3000 If the port is omitted, then port 80 is assumed.

$ http :/foo
GET /foo HTTP/1.1
Host: localhost
$ http :3000/bar
GET /bar HTTP/1.1
Host: localhost:3000
$ http :
GET / HTTP/1.1
Host: localhost

6.3   Other default schemes

When HTTPie is invoked as https then the default scheme is https:// ($ https example.org will make a request to https://example.org).

You can also use the --default-scheme <URL_SCHEME> option to create shortcuts for other protocols than HTTP (possibly supported via plugins). Example for the httpie-unixsocket plugin:

# Before
$ http http+unix://%2Fvar%2Frun%2Fdocker.sock/info
# Create an alias
$ alias http-unix='http --default-scheme="http+unix"'
# Now the scheme can be omitted
$ http-unix %2Fvar%2Frun%2Fdocker.sock/info

6.4   --path-as-is

The standard behaviour of HTTP clients is to normalize the path portion of URLs by squashing dot segments as a typically filesystem would:

$ http -v example.org/./../../etc/password
GET /etc/password HTTP/1.1

The --path-as-is option allows you to disable this behavior:

$ http --path-as-is -v example.org/./../../etc/password
GET /../../etc/password HTTP/1.1

7   Request items

There are a few different request item types that provide a convenient mechanism for specifying HTTP headers, simple JSON and form data, files, and URL parameters.

They are key/value pairs specified after the URL. All have in common that they become part of the actual request that is sent and that their type is distinguished only by the separator used: :, =, :=, ==, @, [email protected], and :[email protected]. The ones with an @ expect a file path as value.

Item Type Description
HTTP Headers Name:Value Arbitrary HTTP header, e.g. X-API-Token:123.
URL parameters name==value Appends the given name/value pair as a query string parameter to the URL. The == separator is used.
Data Fields field=value, [email protected] Request data fields to be serialized as a JSON object (default), to be form-encoded (with --form, -f), or to be serialized as multipart/form-data (with --multipart).
Raw JSON fields field:=json, field:[email protected] Useful when sending JSON and one or more fields need to be a Boolean, Number, nested Object, or an Array, e.g., meals:='["ham","spam"]' or pies:=[1,2,3] (note the quotes).
Fields upload fields [email protected]/dir/file [email protected];type=mime Only available with --form, -f and --multipart. For example [email protected]~/Pictures/img.png, or '[email protected];type=text/markdown'. With --form, the presence of a file field results in a --multipart request.

Note that data fields aren’t the only way to specify request data: Redirected input is a mechanism for passing arbitrary request data.

7.1   Escaping rules

You can use \ to escape characters that shouldn’t be used as separators (or parts thereof). For instance, foo\==bar will become a data key/value pair (foo= and bar) instead of a URL parameter.

Often it is necessary to quote the values, e.g. foo='bar baz'.

If any of the field names or headers starts with a minus (e.g., -fieldname), you need to place all such items after the special token -- to prevent confusion with --arguments:

$ http pie.dev/post  --  -name-starting-with-dash=foo -Unusual-Header:bar
POST /post HTTP/1.1
-Unusual-Header: bar
Content-Type: application/json

{
    "-name-starting-with-dash": "foo"
}

8   JSON

JSON is the lingua franca of modern web services and it is also the implicit content type HTTPie uses by default.

Simple example:

$ http PUT pie.dev/put name=John [email protected]
PUT / HTTP/1.1
Accept: application/json, */*;q=0.5
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
Content-Type: application/json
Host: pie.dev

{
    "name": "John",
    "email": "[email protected]"
}

8.1   Default behaviour

If your command includes some data request items, they are serialized as a JSON object by default. HTTPie also automatically sets the following headers, both of which can be overwritten:

Content-Type application/json
Accept application/json, */*;q=0.5

8.2   Explicit JSON

You can use --json, -j to explicitly set Accept to application/json regardless of whether you are sending data (it’s a shortcut for setting the header via the usual header notation: http url Accept:'application/json, */*;q=0.5'). Additionally, HTTPie will try to detect JSON responses even when the Content-Type is incorrectly text/plain or unknown.

8.3   Non-string JSON fields

Non-string JSON fields use the := separator, which allows you to embed arbitrary JSON data into the resulting JSON object. Additionally, text and raw JSON files can also be embedded into fields using [email protected] and :[email protected]:

$ http PUT pie.dev/put \
    name=John \                        # String (default)
    age:=29 \                          # Raw JSON — Number
    married:=false \                   # Raw JSON — Boolean
    hobbies:='["http", "pies"]' \      # Raw JSON — Array
    favorite:='{"tool": "HTTPie"}' \   # Raw JSON — Object
    bookmarks:[email protected]/data.json \      # Embed JSON file
    [email protected]/text.txt        # Embed text file
PUT /person/1 HTTP/1.1
Accept: application/json, */*;q=0.5
Content-Type: application/json
Host: pie.dev

{
    "age": 29,
    "hobbies": [
        "http",
        "pies"
    ],
    "description": "John is a nice guy who likes pies.",
    "married": false,
    "name": "John",
    "favorite": {
        "tool": "HTTPie"
    },
    "bookmarks": {
        "HTTPie": "https://httpie.org",
    }
}

8.4   Raw and complex JSON

Please note that with the request items data field syntax, commands can quickly become unwieldy when sending complex structures. In such cases, it’s better to pass the full raw JSON data via redirected input, for example:

$ echo '{"hello": "world"}' | http POST pie.dev/post
$ http POST pie.dev/post < files/data.json

Furthermore, this syntax only allows you to send an object as the JSON document, but not an array, etc. Here, again, the solution is to use redirected input.

9   Forms

Submitting forms is very similar to sending JSON requests. Often the only difference is in adding the --form, -f option, which ensures that data fields are serialized as, and Content-Type is set to, application/x-www-form-urlencoded; charset=utf-8. It is possible to make form data the implicit content type instead of JSON via the config file.

9.1   Regular forms

$ http --form POST pie.dev/post name='John Smith'
POST /post HTTP/1.1
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded; charset=utf-8

name=John+Smith

9.2   File upload forms

If one or more file fields is present, the serialization and content type is multipart/form-data:

$ http -f POST pie.dev/post name='John Smith' [email protected]~/files/data.xml

The request above is the same as if the following HTML form were submitted:

<form enctype="multipart/form-data" method="post" action="http://example.com/jobs">
    <input type="text" name="name" />
    <input type="file" name="cv" />
</form>

Please note that @ is used to simulate a file upload form field, whereas [email protected] just embeds the file content as a regular text field value.

When uploading files, their content type is inferred from the file name. You can manually override the inferred content type:

$ http -f POST pie.dev/post name='John Smith' [email protected]'~/files/data.bin;type=application/pdf'

To perform a multipart/form-data request even without any files, use --multipart instead of --form:

$ http --multipart --offline example.org hello=world
POST / HTTP/1.1
Content-Length: 129
Content-Type: multipart/form-data; boundary=c31279ab254f40aeb06df32b433cbccb
Host: example.org

--c31279ab254f40aeb06df32b433cbccb
Content-Disposition: form-data; name="hello"

world
--c31279ab254f40aeb06df32b433cbccb--

File uploads are always streamed to avoid memory issues with large files.

By default, HTTPie uses a random unique string as the multipart boundary but you can use --boundary to specify a custom string instead:

$ http --form --multipart --boundary=xoxo --offline example.org hello=world
POST / HTTP/1.1
Content-Length: 129
Content-Type: multipart/form-data; boundary=xoxo
Host: example.org

--xoxo
Content-Disposition: form-data; name="hello"

world
--xoxo--

If you specify a custom Content-Type header without including the boundary bit, HTTPie will add the boundary value (explicitly specified or auto-generated) to the header automatically:

http --form --multipart --offline example.org hello=world Content-Type:multipart/letter
POST / HTTP/1.1
Content-Length: 129
Content-Type: multipart/letter; boundary=c31279ab254f40aeb06df32b433cbccb
Host: example.org

--c31279ab254f40aeb06df32b433cbccb
Content-Disposition: form-data; name="hello"

world
--c31279ab254f40aeb06df32b433cbccb--

10   HTTP headers

To set custom headers you can use the Header:Value notation:

$ http pie.dev/headers  User-Agent:Bacon/1.0  'Cookie:valued-visitor=yes;foo=bar'  \
    X-Foo:Bar  Referer:https://httpie.org/
GET /headers HTTP/1.1
Accept: */*
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
Cookie: valued-visitor=yes;foo=bar
Host: pie.dev
Referer: https://httpie.org/
User-Agent: Bacon/1.0
X-Foo: Bar

10.1   Default request headers

There are a couple of default headers that HTTPie sets:

GET / HTTP/1.1
Accept: */*
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
User-Agent: HTTPie/<version>
Host: <taken-from-URL>

Any of these can be overwritten and some of them unset (see below).

10.2   Empty headers and header un-setting

To unset a previously specified header (such a one of the default headers), use Header::

$ http pie.dev/headers Accept: User-Agent:

To send a header with an empty value, use Header;:

$ http pie.dev/headers 'Header;'

10.3   Limiting response headers

The --max-headers=n options allows you to control the number of headers HTTPie reads before giving up (the default 0, i.e., there’s no limit).

$ http --max-headers=100 pie.dev/get

11   Offline mode

Use --offline to construct HTTP requests without sending them anywhere. With --offline, HTTPie builds a request based on the specified options and arguments, prints it to stdout, and then exits. It works completely offline; no network connection is ever made. This has a number of use cases, including:

Generating API documentation examples that you can copy & paste without sending a request:

$ http --offline POST server.chess/api/games API-Key:ZZZ w=magnus b=hikaru t=180 i=2
$ http --offline MOVE server.chess/api/games/123 API-Key:ZZZ p=b a=R1a3 t=77

Generating raw requests that can be sent with any other client:

# 1. save a raw request to a file:
$ http --offline POST pie.dev/post hello=world > request.http
# 2. send it over the wire with, for example, the fantastic netcat tool:
$ nc pie.dev 80 < request.http

You can also use the --offline mode for debugging and exploring HTTP and HTTPie, and for “dry runs”.

--offline has the side-effect of automatically activating --print=HB, i.e., both the request headers and the body are printed. You can customize the output with the usual output options, with the exception that there is not response to be printed. You can use --offline in combination with all the other options (e.g., --session).

12   Cookies

HTTP clients send cookies to the server as regular HTTP headers. That means, HTTPie does not offer any special syntax for specifying cookies — the usual Header:Value notation is used:

Send a single cookie:

$ http pie.dev/cookies Cookie:sessionid=foo
GET / HTTP/1.1
Accept: */*
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
Connection: keep-alive
Cookie: sessionid=foo
Host: pie.dev
User-Agent: HTTPie/0.9.9

Send multiple cookies (note the header is quoted to prevent the shell from interpreting the ;):

$ http pie.dev/cookies 'Cookie:sessionid=foo;another-cookie=bar'
GET / HTTP/1.1
Accept: */*
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
Connection: keep-alive
Cookie: sessionid=foo;another-cookie=bar
Host: pie.dev
User-Agent: HTTPie/0.9.9

If you often deal with cookies in your requests, then chances are you’d appreciate the sessions feature.

13   Authentication

The currently supported authentication schemes are Basic and Digest (see auth plugins for more). There are two flags that control authentication:

--auth, -a Pass a username:password pair as the argument. Or, if you only specify a username (-a username), you’ll be prompted for the password before the request is sent. To send an empty password, pass username:. The username:[email protected] URL syntax is supported as well (but credentials passed via -a have higher priority).
--auth-type, -A Specify the auth mechanism. Possible values are basic, digest, or the name of any auth plugins you have installed. The default value is basic so it can often be omitted.

13.1   Basic auth

$ http -a username:password pie.dev/basic-auth/username/password

13.2   Digest auth

$ http -A digest -a username:password pie.dev/digest-auth/httpie/username/password

13.3   Password prompt

$ http -a username pie.dev/basic-auth/username/password

13.4   Empty password

$ http -a username: pie.dev/headers

13.5   .netrc

Authentication information from your ~/.netrc file is by default honored as well.

For example:

$ cat ~/.netrc
machine pie.dev
login httpie
password test
$ http pie.dev/basic-auth/httpie/test
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
[...]

This can be disabled with the --ignore-netrc option:

$ http --ignore-netrc pie.dev/basic-auth/httpie/test
HTTP/1.1 401 UNAUTHORIZED
[...]

13.6   Auth plugins

Additional authentication mechanism can be installed as plugins. They can be found on the Python Package Index. Here’s a few picks:

14   HTTP redirects

By default, HTTP redirects are not followed and only the first response is shown:

$ http pie.dev/redirect/3

14.1   Follow Location

To instruct HTTPie to follow the Location header of 30x responses and show the final response instead, use the --follow, -F option:

$ http --follow pie.dev/redirect/3

14.2   Showing intermediary redirect responses

If you additionally wish to see the intermediary requests/responses, then use the --all option as well:

$ http --follow --all pie.dev/redirect/3

14.3   Limiting maximum redirects followed

To change the default limit of maximum 30 redirects, use the --max-redirects=<limit> option:

$ http --follow --all --max-redirects=2 pie.dev/redirect/3

15   Proxies

You can specify proxies to be used through the --proxy argument for each protocol (which is included in the value in case of redirects across protocols):

$ http --proxy=http:http://10.10.1.10:3128 --proxy=https:https://10.10.1.10:1080 example.org

With Basic authentication:

$ http --proxy=http:http://user:[email protected]:3128 example.org

15.1   Environment variables

You can also configure proxies by environment variables ALL_PROXY, HTTP_PROXY and HTTPS_PROXY, and the underlying Requests library will pick them up as well. If you want to disable proxies configured through the environment variables for certain hosts, you can specify them in NO_PROXY.

In your ~/.bash_profile:

export HTTP_PROXY=http://10.10.1.10:3128
export HTTPS_PROXY=https://10.10.1.10:1080
export NO_PROXY=localhost,example.com

15.2   SOCKS

Usage is the same as for other types of proxies:

$ http --proxy=http:socks5://user:[email protected]:port --proxy=https:socks5://user:[email protected]:port example.org

16   HTTPS

16.1   Server SSL certificate verification

To skip the host’s SSL certificate verification, you can pass --verify=no (default is yes):

$ http --verify=no https://pie.dev/get

16.2   Custom CA bundle

You can also use --verify=<CA_BUNDLE_PATH> to set a custom CA bundle path:

$ http --verify=/ssl/custom_ca_bundle https://example.org

16.3   Client side SSL certificate

To use a client side certificate for the SSL communication, you can pass the path of the cert file with --cert:

$ http --cert=client.pem https://example.org

If the private key is not contained in the cert file you may pass the path of the key file with --cert-key:

$ http --cert=client.crt --cert-key=client.key https://example.org

16.4   SSL version

Use the --ssl=<PROTOCOL> option to specify the desired protocol version to use. This will default to SSL v2.3 which will negotiate the highest protocol that both the server and your installation of OpenSSL support. The available protocols are ssl2.3, ssl3, tls1, tls1.1, tls1.2, tls1.3. (The actually available set of protocols may vary depending on your OpenSSL installation.)

# Specify the vulnerable SSL v3 protocol to talk to an outdated server:
$ http --ssl=ssl3 https://vulnerable.example.org

16.5   SSL ciphers

You can specify the available ciphers with --ciphers. It should be a string in the OpenSSL cipher list format.

$ http --ciphers=ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256  https://pie.dev/get

Note: these cipher strings do not change the negotiated version of SSL or TLS, they only affect the list of available cipher suites.

To see the default cipher string, run http --help and see the --ciphers section under SSL.

17   Output options

By default, HTTPie only outputs the final response and the whole response message is printed (headers as well as the body). You can control what should be printed via several options:

--headers, -h Only the response headers are printed.
--body, -b Only the response body is printed.
--verbose, -v Print the whole HTTP exchange (request and response). This option also enables --all (see below).
--print, -p Selects parts of the HTTP exchange.
--quiet, -q Don't print anything to stdout and stderr.

17.1   What parts of the HTTP exchange should be printed

All the other output options are under the hood just shortcuts for the more powerful --print, -p. It accepts a string of characters each of which represents a specific part of the HTTP exchange:

Character Stands for
H request headers
B request body
h response headers
b response body

Print request and response headers:

$ http --print=Hh PUT pie.dev/put hello=world

17.2   Verbose output

--verbose can often be useful for debugging the request and generating documentation examples:

$ http --verbose PUT pie.dev/put hello=world
PUT /put HTTP/1.1
Accept: application/json, */*;q=0.5
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
Content-Type: application/json
Host: pie.dev
User-Agent: HTTPie/0.2.7dev

{
    "hello": "world"
}


HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Connection: keep-alive
Content-Length: 477
Content-Type: application/json
Date: Sun, 05 Aug 2012 00:25:23 GMT
Server: gunicorn/0.13.4

{
    […]
}

17.3   Quiet output

--quiet redirects all output that would otherwise go to stdout and stderr to /dev/null (except for errors and warnings). This doesn’t affect output to a file via --output or --download.

# There will be no output:
$ http --quiet pie.dev/post enjoy='the silence'

17.4   Viewing intermediary requests/responses

To see all the HTTP communication, i.e. the final request/response as well as any possible intermediary requests/responses, use the --all option. The intermediary HTTP communication include followed redirects (with --follow), the first unauthorized request when HTTP digest authentication is used (--auth=digest), etc.

# Include all responses that lead to the final one:
$ http --all --follow pie.dev/redirect/3

The intermediary requests/response are by default formatted according to --print, -p (and its shortcuts described above). If you’d like to change that, use the --history-print, -P option. It takes the same arguments as --print, -p but applies to the intermediary requests only.

# Print the intermediary requests/responses differently than the final one:
$ http -A digest -a foo:bar --all -p Hh -P H pie.dev/digest-auth/auth/foo/bar

17.5   Conditional body download

As an optimization, the response body is downloaded from the server only if it’s part of the output. This is similar to performing a HEAD request, except that it applies to any HTTP method you use.

Let’s say that there is an API that returns the whole resource when it is updated, but you are only interested in the response headers to see the status code after an update:

$ http --headers PATCH pie.dev/patch name='New Name'

Since we are only printing the HTTP headers here, the connection to the server is closed as soon as all the response headers have been received. Therefore, bandwidth and time isn’t wasted downloading the body which you don’t care about. The response headers are downloaded always, even if they are not part of the output

18   Redirected Input

The universal method for passing request data is through redirected stdin (standard input)—piping.

By default, stdin data is buffered and then with no further processing used as the request body. If you provide Content-Length, then the request body is streamed without buffering. You can also use --chunked to enable streaming via chunked transfer encoding.

There are multiple useful ways to use piping:

Redirect from a file:

$ http PUT pie.dev/put X-API-Token:123 < files/data.json

Or the output of another program:

$ grep '401 Unauthorized' /var/log/httpd/error_log | http POST pie.dev/post

You can use echo for simple data:

$ echo '{"name": "John"}' | http PATCH pie.dev/patch X-API-Token:123

You can also use a Bash here string:

$ http pie.dev/post <<<'{"name": "John"}'

You can even pipe web services together using HTTPie:

$ http GET https://api.github.com/repos/httpie/httpie | http POST pie.dev/post

You can use cat to enter multiline data on the terminal:

$ cat | http POST pie.dev/post
<paste>
^D
$ cat | http POST pie.dev/post Content-Type:text/plain
- buy milk
- call parents
^D

On OS X, you can send the contents of the clipboard with pbpaste:

$ pbpaste | http PUT pie.dev/put

Passing data through stdin cannot be combined with data fields specified on the command line:

$ echo 'data' | http POST example.org more=data   # This is invalid

To prevent HTTPie from reading stdin data you can use the --ignore-stdin option.

18.1   Request data from a filename

An alternative to redirected stdin is specifying a filename (as @/path/to/file) whose content is used as if it came from stdin.

It has the advantage that the Content-Type header is automatically set to the appropriate value based on the filename extension. For example, the following request sends the verbatim contents of that XML file with Content-Type: application/xml:

$ http PUT pie.dev/put @files/data.xml

File uploads are always streamed to avoid memory issues with large files.

19   Chunked transfer encoding

You can use the --chunked flag to instruct HTTPie to use Transfer-Encoding: chunked:

$ http --chunked PUT pie.dev/put hello=world
$ http --chunked --multipart PUT pie.dev/put hello=world [email protected]/data.xml
$ http --chunked pie.dev/post @files/data.xml
$ cat files/data.xml | http --chunked pie.dev/post

20   Terminal output

HTTPie does several things by default in order to make its terminal output easy to read.

20.1   Colors and formatting

Syntax highlighting is applied to HTTP headers and bodies (where it makes sense). You can choose your preferred color scheme via the --style option if you don’t like the default one. There dozens of styles available, here are just a few special or notable ones:

auto Follows your terminal ANSI color styles. This is the default style used by HTTPie.
default Default styles of the underlying Pygments library. Not actually used by default by HTTPie. You can enable it with --style=default
monokai A popular color scheme. Enable with --style=monokai.
fruity A bold, colorful scheme. Enable with --style=fruity.
See $ http --help for all the possible --style values.

Also, the following formatting is applied:

  • HTTP headers are sorted by name.
  • JSON data is indented, sorted by keys, and unicode escapes are converted to the characters they represent.

One of these options can be used to control output processing:

--pretty=all Apply both colors and formatting. Default for terminal output.
--pretty=colors Apply colors.
--pretty=format Apply formatting.
--pretty=none Disables output processing. Default for redirected output.

You can control the applied formatting via the --format-options option. The following options are available:

For example, this is how you would disable the default header and JSON key sorting, and specify a custom JSON indent size:

$ http --format-options headers.sort:false,json.sort_keys:false,json.indent:2 pie.dev/get

This is something you will typically store as one of the default options in your config file. See http --help for all the available formatting options.

There are also two shortcuts that allow you to quickly disable and re-enable sorting-related format options (currently it means JSON keys and headers): --unsorted and --sorted.

20.2   Binary data

Binary data is suppressed for terminal output, which makes it safe to perform requests to URLs that send back binary data. Binary data is suppressed also in redirected, but prettified output. The connection is closed as soon as we know that the response body is binary,

$ http pie.dev/bytes/2000

You will nearly instantly see something like this:

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: application/octet-stream

+-----------------------------------------+
| NOTE: binary data not shown in terminal |
+-----------------------------------------+

21   Redirected output

HTTPie uses a different set of defaults for redirected output than for terminal output. The differences being:

  • Formatting and colors aren’t applied (unless --pretty is specified).
  • Only the response body is printed (unless one of the output options is set).
  • Also, binary data isn’t suppressed.

The reason is to make piping HTTPie’s output to another programs and downloading files work with no extra flags. Most of the time, only the raw response body is of an interest when the output is redirected.

Download a file:

$ http pie.dev/image/png > image.png

Download an image of Octocat, resize it using ImageMagick, upload it elsewhere:

$ http octodex.github.com/images/original.jpg | convert - -resize 25% -  | http example.org/Octocats

Force colorizing and formatting, and show both the request and the response in less pager:

$ http --pretty=all --verbose pie.dev/get | less -R

The -R flag tells less to interpret color escape sequences included HTTPie`s output.

You can create a shortcut for invoking HTTPie with colorized and paged output by adding the following to your ~/.bash_profile:

function httpless {
    # `httpless example.org'
    http --pretty=all --print=hb "[email protected]" | less -R;
}

22   Download mode

HTTPie features a download mode in which it acts similarly to wget.

When enabled using the --download, -d flag, response headers are printed to the terminal (stderr), and a progress bar is shown while the response body is being saved to a file.

$ http --download https://github.com/httpie/httpie/archive/master.tar.gz
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Disposition: attachment; filename=httpie-master.tar.gz
Content-Length: 257336
Content-Type: application/x-gzip

Downloading 251.30 kB to "httpie-master.tar.gz"
Done. 251.30 kB in 2.73862s (91.76 kB/s)

22.1   Downloaded filename

There are three mutually exclusive ways through which HTTPie determines the output filename (with decreasing priority):

  1. You can explicitly provide it via --output, -o. The file gets overwritten if it already exists (or appended to with --continue, -c).
  2. The server may specify the filename in the optional Content-Disposition response header. Any leading dots are stripped from a server-provided filename.
  3. The last resort HTTPie uses is to generate the filename from a combination of the request URL and the response Content-Type. The initial URL is always used as the basis for the generated filename — even if there has been one or more redirects.

To prevent data loss by overwriting, HTTPie adds a unique numerical suffix to the filename when necessary (unless specified with --output, -o).

22.2   Piping while downloading

You can also redirect the response body to another program while the response headers and progress are still shown in the terminal:

$ http -d https://github.com/httpie/httpie/archive/master.tar.gz |  tar zxf -

22.3   Resuming downloads

If --output, -o is specified, you can resume a partial download using the --continue, -c option. This only works with servers that support Range requests and 206 Partial Content responses. If the server doesn’t support that, the whole file will simply be downloaded:

$ http -dco file.zip example.org/file

22.4   Other notes

  • The --download option only changes how the response body is treated.
  • You can still set custom headers, use sessions, --verbose, -v, etc.
  • --download always implies --follow (redirects are followed).
  • --download also implies --check-status (error HTTP status will result in a non-zero exist static code).
  • HTTPie exits with status code 1 (error) if the body hasn’t been fully downloaded.
  • Accept-Encoding cannot be set with --download.

23   Streamed responses

Responses are downloaded and printed in chunks which allows for streaming and large file downloads without using too much memory. However, when colors and formatting is applied, the whole response is buffered and only then processed at once.

23.1   Disabling buffering

You can use the --stream, -S flag to make two things happen:

  1. The output is flushed in much smaller chunks without any buffering, which makes HTTPie behave kind of like tail -f for URLs.
  2. Streaming becomes enabled even when the output is prettified: It will be applied to each line of the response and flushed immediately. This makes it possible to have a nice output for long-lived requests, such as one to the Twitter streaming API.

23.2   Examples use cases

Prettified streamed response:

$ http --stream pie.dev/stream/3

Streamed output by small chunks à la tail -f:

# Send each new line (JSON object) to another URL as soon as it arrives from a streaming API:
$ http --stream pie.dev/stream/3 | while read line; do echo "$line" | http pie.dev/post ; done

24   Sessions

By default, every request HTTPie makes is completely independent of any previous ones to the same host.

However, HTTPie also supports persistent sessions via the --session=SESSION_NAME_OR_PATH option. In a session, custom HTTP headers (except for the ones starting with Content- or If-), authentication, and cookies (manually specified or sent by the server) persist between requests to the same host.

# Create a new session:
$ http --session=./session.json pie.dev/headers API-Token:123
# Inspect / edit the generated session file:
$ cat session.json
# Re-use the existing session — the API-Token header will be set:
$ http --session=./session.json pie.dev/headers

All session data, including credentials, cookie data, and custom headers are stored in plain text. That means session files can also be created and edited manually in a text editor—they are regular JSON. It also means that they can be read by anyone who has access to the session file.

24.1   Named sessions

You can create one or more named session per host. For example, this is how you can create a new session named user1 for pie.dev:

$ http --session=user1 -a user1:password pie.dev/get X-Foo:Bar

From now on, you can refer to the session by its name (user1). When you choose to use the session again, any previously specified authentication or HTTP headers will automatically be set:

$ http --session=user1 pie.dev/get

To create or reuse a different session, simple specify a different name:

$ http --session=user2 -a user2:password pie.dev/get X-Bar:Foo

Named sessions’s data is stored in JSON files inside the sessions subdirectory of the config directory, typically: ~/.config/httpie/sessions/<host>/<name>.json (%APPDATA%\httpie\sessions\<host>\<name>.json on Windows).

If you have executed the above commands on a unix machine, you should be able list the generated sessions files using:

$ ls -l ~/.config/httpie/sessions/pie.dev

24.2   Anonymous sessions

Instead of a name, you can also directly specify a path to a session file. This allows for sessions to be re-used across multiple hosts:

# Create a session:
$ http --session=/tmp/session.json example.org
# Use the session to make a request to another host:
$ http --session=/tmp/session.json admin.example.org
# You can also refer to a previously created named session:
$ http --session=~/.config/httpie/sessions/another.example.org/test.json example.org

When creating anonymous sessions, please remember to always include at least one /, even if the session files is located in the current directory (i.e., --session=./session.json instead of just --session=session.json), otherwise HTTPie assumes a named session instead.

24.3   Readonly session

To use an existing session file without updating it from the request/response exchange after it has been created, specify the session name via --session-read-only=SESSION_NAME_OR_PATH instead.

# If the session file doesn’t exist, then it is created:
$ http --session-read-only=./ro-session.json pie.dev/headers Custom-Header:orig-value
# But it is not updated:
$ http --session-read-only=./ro-session.json pie.dev/headers Custom-Header:new-value

24.4   Cookie Storage Behaviour

TL;DR: Cookie storage priority: Server response > Command line request > Session file

To set a cookie within a Session there are three options:

  1. Get a Set-Cookie header in a response from a server
$ http --session=./session.json pie.dev/cookie/set?foo=bar
  1. Set the cookie name and value through the command line as seen in cookies
$ http --session=./session.json pie.dev/headers Cookie:foo=bar
  1. Manually set cookie parameters in the json file of the session
{
    "__meta__": {
    "about": "HTTPie session file",
    "help": "https://httpie.org/doc#sessions",
    "httpie": "2.2.0-dev"
    },
    "auth": {
        "password": null,
        "type": null,
        "username": null
    },
    "cookies": {
        "foo": {
            "expires": null,
            "path": "/",
            "secure": false,
            "value": "bar"
            }
    }
}

Cookies will be set in the session file with the priority specified above. For example, a cookie set through the command line will overwrite a cookie of the same name stored in the session file. If the server returns a Set-Cookie header with a cookie of the same name, the returned cookie will overwrite the preexisting cookie.

Expired cookies are never stored. If a cookie in a session file expires, it will be removed before sending a new request. If the server expires an existing cookie, it will also be removed from the session file.

25   Config

HTTPie uses a simple config.json file. The file doesn’t exist by default but you can create it manually.

25.1   Config file directory

To see the exact location for your installation, run http --debug and look for config_dir in the output.

The default location of the configuration file on most platforms is $XDG_CONFIG_HOME/httpie/config.json (defaulting to ~/.config/httpie/config.json).

For backwards compatibility, if the directory ~/.httpie exists, the configuration file there will be used instead.

On Windows, the config file is located at %APPDATA%\httpie\config.json.

The config directory can be changed by setting the $HTTPIE_CONFIG_DIR environment variable:

$ export HTTPIE_CONFIG_DIR=/tmp/httpie
$ http pie.dev/get

25.2   Configurable options

Currently HTTPie offers a single configurable option:

25.2.1   default_options

An Array (by default empty) of default options that should be applied to every invocation of HTTPie.

For instance, you can use this config option to change your default color theme:

$ cat ~/.config/httpie/config.json
{
    "default_options": [
      "--style=fruity"
    ]
}

Even though it is technically possible to include there any of HTTPie’s options, it is not recommended to modify the default behaviour in a way that would break your compatibility with the wider world as that can generate a lot of confusion.

25.3   Un-setting previously specified options

Default options from the config file, or specified any other way, can be unset for a particular invocation via --no-OPTION arguments passed on the command line (e.g., --no-style or --no-session).

26   Scripting

When using HTTPie from shell scripts, it can be handy to set the --check-status flag. It instructs HTTPie to exit with an error if the HTTP status is one of 3xx, 4xx, or 5xx. The exit status will be 3 (unless --follow is set), 4, or 5, respectively.

#!/bin/bash

if http --check-status --ignore-stdin --timeout=2.5 HEAD pie.dev/get &> /dev/null; then
    echo 'OK!'
else
    case $? in
        2) echo 'Request timed out!' ;;
        3) echo 'Unexpected HTTP 3xx Redirection!' ;;
        4) echo 'HTTP 4xx Client Error!' ;;
        5) echo 'HTTP 5xx Server Error!' ;;
        6) echo 'Exceeded --max-redirects=<n> redirects!' ;;
        *) echo 'Other Error!' ;;
    esac
fi

26.1   Best practices

The default behaviour of automatically reading stdin is typically not desirable during non-interactive invocations. You most likely want to use the --ignore-stdin option to disable it.

It is a common gotcha that without this option HTTPie seemingly hangs. What happens is that when HTTPie is invoked for example from a cron job, stdin is not connected to a terminal. Therefore, rules for redirected input apply, i.e., HTTPie starts to read it expecting that the request body will be passed through. And since there’s no data nor EOF, it will be stuck. So unless you’re piping some data to HTTPie, this flag should be used in scripts.

Also, it might be good to set a connection --timeout limit to prevent your program from hanging if the server never responds.

27   Meta

27.1   Interface design

The syntax of the command arguments closely corresponds to the actual HTTP requests sent over the wire. It has the advantage that it’s easy to remember and read. It is often possible to translate an HTTP request to an HTTPie argument list just by inlining the request elements. For example, compare this HTTP request:

POST /post HTTP/1.1
Host: pie.dev
X-API-Key: 123
User-Agent: Bacon/1.0
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded

name=value&name2=value2

with the HTTPie command that sends it:

$ http -f POST pie.dev/post \
  X-API-Key:123 \
  User-Agent:Bacon/1.0 \
  name=value \
  name2=value2

Notice that both the order of elements and the syntax is very similar, and that only a small portion of the command is used to control HTTPie and doesn’t directly correspond to any part of the request (here it’s only -f asking HTTPie to send a form request).

The two modes, --pretty=all (default for terminal) and --pretty=none (default for redirected output), allow for both user-friendly interactive use and usage from scripts, where HTTPie serves as a generic HTTP client.

As HTTPie is still under heavy development, the existing command line syntax and some of the --OPTIONS may change slightly before HTTPie reaches its final version 1.0. All changes are recorded in the change log.

27.2   Community and Support

HTTPie has the following community channels:

27.3   Related projects

27.3.1   Dependencies

Under the hood, HTTPie uses these two amazing libraries:

  • Requests — Python HTTP library for humans
  • Pygments — Python syntax highlighter

27.3.2   HTTPie friends

HTTPie plays exceptionally well with the following tools:

  • http-prompt — interactive shell for HTTPie featuring autocomplete and command syntax highlighting
  • jq — CLI JSON processor that works great in conjunction with HTTPie

Helpers to convert from other client tools:

  • CurliPie help convert cURL command line to HTTPie command line.

27.3.3   Alternatives

  • httpcat — a lower-level sister utility of HTTPie for constructing raw HTTP requests on the command line.
  • curl — a "Swiss knife" command line tool and an exceptional library for transferring data with URLs.

27.4   Contributing

See CONTRIBUTING.rst.

27.5   Change log

See CHANGELOG.

27.6   Artwork

27.7   Licence

BSD-3-Clause: LICENSE.

27.8   Authors

Jakub Roztocil (@jakubroztocil) created HTTPie and these fine people have contributed.

Issues
  • Issue for Testing

    Issue for Testing

    Test httpie advanced usage by posting a comment on this issue:

    http -a <username> https://api.github.com/repos/httpie/httpie/issues/83/comments body='Your Comment'
    
    opened by jakubroztocil 436
  • Option to allow pretty print without alpha sorting

    Option to allow pretty print without alpha sorting

    Right now, the options are colors, format, and all, but often the order of the json returned is intentional and for clarify. It would be nice to be able to pretty print the json without having it's keys sorted :)

    Awesome tool, and thanks very much for everything!

    enhancement 
    opened by patcon 36
  • Improve handling of prettified responses without correct content-type encoding

    Improve handling of prettified responses without correct content-type encoding

    Supersedes #594. Fixes #1022 and related already-closed issues. Fixes #358. Fixes #627.

    opened by BoboTiG 29
  • httpie changing the json fields order in the output

    httpie changing the json fields order in the output

    Wondering how can I force httpie to not change the json fields order?

    curl -i http://localhost:8080/v1/notes/569766aed4c661fba8d85a12
    
    {
      "id": "569766aed4c661fba8d85a12",
      "content": "hi"
    }
    

    with httpie

    http get :8080/v1/notes/569766aed4c661fba8d85a12 
    
    {
      "content": "hi",
      "id": "569766aed4c661fba8d85a12"
    }
    

    I prefer the id field to be always the first. Any thoughts?

    opened by altfatterz 27
  • Add support for unix domain sockets

    Add support for unix domain sockets

    To issue HTTP requests to a UNIX domain socket:

    • Use new "http+unix://" scheme in URL.

    • Use urlencoded socket path as the hostname part of the URL. e.g.: for a socket at /tmp/profilesvc.sock, you could do:

      http http+unix://%2Ftmp%2Fprofilesvc.sock/status/pid
      

    This uses https://pypi.python.org/pypi/requests-unixsocket

    Fixes: GH-209 (https://github.com/jakubroztocil/httpie/issues/209)

    Screenshot

    screen shot 2014-11-24 at 6 35 24 pm

    Cc: @shin-, @jakubroztocil, @monsanto, @np, @nuxlli, @matrixise, @remmelt

    opened by msabramo 26
  • Multiple test failures in tox py34

    Multiple test failures in tox py34

    Multiple test failures in test_sessions.py.

    When I run:

    tox -e py34 -- tests/test_sessions.py
    

    I get 1, 2, or 3 test failures out of the 7 total tests in that module.

    tests/test_sessions.py::TestSessionFlow::test_session_created_and_reused PASSED
    tests/test_sessions.py::TestSessionFlow::test_session_update FAILED
    tests/test_sessions.py::TestSessionFlow::test_session_read_only FAILED
    tests/test_sessions.py::TestSession::test_session_ignored_header_prefixes PASSED
    tests/test_sessions.py::TestSession::test_session_by_path PASSED
    tests/test_sessions.py::TestSession::test_session_unicode FAILED
    tests/test_sessions.py::TestSession::test_session_default_header_value_overwritten PASSED
    

    More info:

    TestSessionFlow.test_session_update fails with:

    ...
    requests.exceptions.ConnectionError: (
    'Connection aborted.', ConnectionResetError(54, 'Connection reset by peer'))
    

    pdb for above error shows:

    > /Users/marca/dev/git-repos/httpie/.tox/py34/lib/python3.4/site-packages/requests/adapters.py(407)send()
    -> raise ConnectionError(err, request=request)
    (Pdb) up
    > /Users/marca/dev/git-repos/httpie/.tox/py34/lib/python3.4/site-packages/requests/sessions.py(569)send()
    -> r = adapter.send(request, **kwargs)
    (Pdb) request.method
    'GET'
    (Pdb) request.url
    'http://127.0.0.1:56308/cookies'
    (Pdb) request.headers
    {'Accept-Encoding': 'gzip, deflate', 'Hello': b'World2', 'Cookie': 'hello=world; hello=world2', 'Connection': 'keep-alive', 'Authorization': b'Basic dXNlcm5hbWU6cGFzc3dvcmQy', 'Accept': '*/*', 'User-Agent': b'HTTPie/0.9.0-dev'}
    (Pdb) kwargs
    {'timeout': 30, 'cert': None, 'proxies': {}, 'stream': True, 'verify': True}
    

    TestSessionFlow.test_session_read_only fails with

    ...
    requests.exceptions.ConnectionError: ('Connection aborted.', BadStatusLine("''",))
    

    pdb for above error shows:

    > /Users/marca/dev/git-repos/httpie/.tox/py34/lib/python3.4/site-packages/requests/adapters.py(407)send()
    -> raise ConnectionError(err, request=request)
    (Pdb) up
    > /Users/marca/dev/git-repos/httpie/.tox/py34/lib/python3.4/site-packages/requests/sessions.py(569)send()
    -> r = adapter.send(request, **kwargs)
    (Pdb) request.method
    'GET'
    (Pdb) request.url
    'http://127.0.0.1:56276/cookies'
    (Pdb) request.headers
    {'User-Agent': b'HTTPie/0.9.0-dev', 'Hello': b'World2', 'Accept-Encoding': 'gzip, deflate', 'Cookie': 'hello=world; hello=world2', 'Connection': 'keep-alive', 'Authorization': b'Basic dXNlcm5hbWU6cGFzc3dvcmQy', 'Accept': '*/*'}
    (Pdb) kwargs
    {'cert': None, 'proxies': {}, 'verify': True, 'timeout': 30, 'stream': True}
    

    TestSession.test_session_unicode fails with:

    ...
    Traceback (most recent call last):
      File ".../httpie/tests/test_sessions.py", line 148, in test_session_unicode
        assert (r2.json['headers']['Authorization']
    KeyError: 'Authorization'
    

    Pertaining to this last error, there is a comment in the test saying:

    147             # FIXME: Authorization *sometimes* is not present on Python3
    
    (Pdb) pprint.pprint(r2.json)
    {'args': {},
     'headers': {'Content-Length': '',
                 'Host': '127.0.0.1:56230',
                 'Test': '[one line of UTF8-encoded unicode text] Ï\x87Ï\x81Ï'},
     'origin': '127.0.0.1',
     'url': 'http://127.0.0.1:56230/get'}
    

    In py33 I also see 1 to 2 test failures -- I have not yet observed TestSession.test_session_unicode failing on py33.

    Most of the time, all these tests pass on py27, though I am seeing test_session_read_only fail occasionally with:

    ____________________________________________________________________ TestSessionFlow.test_session_read_only ____________________________________________________________________
    Traceback (most recent call last):
      File "/Users/marca/dev/git-repos/httpie/tests/test_sessions.py", line 82, in test_session_read_only
        self.start_session(httpbin)
      File "/Users/marca/dev/git-repos/httpie/tests/test_sessions.py", line 48, in start_session
        env=self.env())
      File "/Users/marca/dev/git-repos/httpie/tests/utils.py", line 136, in http
        exit_status = main(args=args, **kwargs)
      File "/Users/marca/dev/git-repos/httpie/.tox/py27/lib/python2.7/site-packages/httpie/core.py", line 112, in main
        response = get_response(args, config_dir=env.config.directory)
      File "/Users/marca/dev/git-repos/httpie/.tox/py27/lib/python2.7/site-packages/httpie/client.py", line 31, in get_response
        read_only=bool(args.session_read_only),
      File "/Users/marca/dev/git-repos/httpie/.tox/py27/lib/python2.7/site-packages/httpie/sessions.py", line 65, in get_response
        response = requests_session.request(**requests_kwargs)
      File "/Users/marca/dev/git-repos/httpie/.tox/py27/lib/python2.7/site-packages/requests/sessions.py", line 457, in request
        resp = self.send(prep, **send_kwargs)
      File "/Users/marca/dev/git-repos/httpie/.tox/py27/lib/python2.7/site-packages/requests/sessions.py", line 595, in send
        history = [resp for resp in gen] if allow_redirects else []
      File "/Users/marca/dev/git-repos/httpie/.tox/py27/lib/python2.7/site-packages/requests/sessions.py", line 189, in resolve_redirects
        allow_redirects=False,
      File "/Users/marca/dev/git-repos/httpie/.tox/py27/lib/python2.7/site-packages/requests/sessions.py", line 569, in send
        r = adapter.send(request, **kwargs)
      File "/Users/marca/dev/git-repos/httpie/.tox/py27/lib/python2.7/site-packages/requests/adapters.py", line 407, in send
        raise ConnectionError(err, request=request)
    ConnectionError: ('Connection aborted.', error(54, 'Connection reset by peer'))
    
    opened by msabramo 26
  • requests.exceptions.SSLError: [Errno 8] _ssl.c:507: EOF occurred in violation of protocol

    requests.exceptions.SSLError: [Errno 8] _ssl.c:507: EOF occurred in violation of protocol

    HTTPie 1.0.0-dev
    HTTPie data: /Users/kaji/.httpie
    Requests 2.5.3
    Pygments 2.0.2
    Python 2.7.6 (default, Sep  9 2014, 15:04:36)
    [GCC 4.2.1 Compatible Apple LLVM 6.0 (clang-600.0.39)] darwin
    Not every SSL website shows though. So, it is tricky. From browser , it is working fine.
    
    >>> requests.request({'allow_redirects': False,
     'auth': None,
     'cert': None,
     'data': OrderedDict(),
     'files': DataDict(),
     'headers': {'User-Agent': 'HTTPie/1.0.0-dev'},
     'method': 'get',
     'params': ParamsDict(),
     'proxies': {},
     'stream': True,
     'timeout': 30,
     'url': u'https://apissl.example.com',
     'verify': True})
    
    Traceback (most recent call last):
      File "/usr/local/bin/http", line 9, in <module>
        load_entry_point('httpie==1.0.0-dev', 'console_scripts', 'http')()
      File "/Library/Python/2.7/site-packages/httpie/core.py", line 112, in main
        response = get_response(args, config_dir=env.config.directory)
      File "/Library/Python/2.7/site-packages/httpie/client.py", line 41, in get_response
        response = requests_session.request(**kwargs)
      File "/Library/Python/2.7/site-packages/requests/sessions.py", line 461, in request
        resp = self.send(prep, **send_kwargs)
      File "/Library/Python/2.7/site-packages/requests/sessions.py", line 573, in send
        r = adapter.send(request, **kwargs)
      File "/Library/Python/2.7/site-packages/requests/adapters.py", line 431, in send
        raise SSLError(e, request=request)
    requests.exceptions.SSLError: [Errno 8] _ssl.c:507: EOF occurred in violation of protocol
    
    opened by kaji-bikash 23
  • +Dockerfile

    +Dockerfile

    Add a simple dockerfile for arbitrary usage.

    enhancement 
    opened by schvin 23
  • Request to add `-d, --data` option for raw body like curl

    Request to add `-d, --data` option for raw body like curl

    The request is simple, just to add an option to pass raw data like curl does:

    http :/api/user -d 'MyRawData...'
    

    I know that in mostly cases if you are sending JSON or form data, it can be achieved with the "request items", like:

    http :/api/hey say=Hello to=me …
    

    And it will converted to the proper format depending of the content type, that is awesome! And if you have something that is not a JSON or form data to send, you can do something like:

    echo 'MyRawData...' | http :/api/hey
    

    But this is impractical, the main idea of HTTPie is cURL-like tool for humans , and this case is far of that principle, in fact, curl is more practical than HTTPie for the previous example. Adding more than one command and pipe them with ugly characters like | < just because a simple option is missing doesn't sound human-friendly.

    What's wrong with add the -d option to http?

    opened by mrsarm 22
  • httpie output has lots of additional characters on windows

    httpie output has lots of additional characters on windows

    Running http GET httpie.org on windows results in a load of extra characters being printed out:

    HTTP/1.1 ←[39;49;00m←[34m302←[39;49;00m←[33m Found←[39;49;00m
    Date:←[39;49;00m←[33m Mon, 19 Mar 2012 15:13:17 GMT←[39;49;00m
    Server:←[39;49;00m←[33m Apache←[39;49;00m
    X-Awesome:←[39;49;00m←[33m Thanks for trying HTTPie :)←[39;49;00m
    Location:←[39;49;00m←[33m https://github.com/jkbr/httpie←[39;49;00m
    Cache-Control:←[39;49;00m←[33m max-age=1800←[39;49;00m
    Expires:←[39;49;00m←[33m Mon, 19 Mar 2012 15:43:17 GMT←[39;49;00m
    Content-Length:←[39;49;00m←[33m 214←[39;49;00m
    Content-Type:←[39;49;00m←[33m text/html; charset=iso-8859-1←[39;49;00m
    
    ←[36m<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//IETF//DTD HTML 2.0//EN">←[39;49;00m
    ←[34;01m<html←[39;49;00m←[34;01m>←[39;49;00m←[34;01m<head←[39;49;00m←[34;01m>←[39;49;00m
    ←[34;01m<title←[39;49;00m←[34;01m>←[39;49;00m302 Found←[39;49;00m←[34;01m</title>←[39;49;00m
    ←[34;01m</head>←[39;49;00m←[34;01m<body←[39;49;00m←[34;01m>←[39;49;00m
    ←[34;01m<h1←[39;49;00m←[34;01m>←[39;49;00mFound←[39;49;00m←[34;01m</h1>←[39;49;00m
    ←[34;01m<p←[39;49;00m←[34;01m>←[39;49;00mThe document has moved ←[39;49;00m←[34;01m<a←[39;49;00m ←[39;49;00m←[36mhref=←[39;49;00m←[33m"https://github.com/jkbr/httpie"←[39;49;00m←[34;01m>←[39;49;00mhere←[39;49;00m←[34;01m</a>←[39;49;00m.←[39;49;00m←[34;01m</p>←[39;49;00m
    

    I'm guessing that these are escape codes that provide the colored output on other operating systems. Running http -u GET httpie.org results in correct (though monochrome) output.

    It'd be nice to get cross platform colored output like provided by clint.

    bug windows 
    opened by obmarg 20
  • Lazily load pygments styles

    Lazily load pygments styles

    We currently try to retrieve all pygments styles at once, but this operation is very slow due to the import of pkg_resources on the pygments side. https://github.com/httpie/httpie/blob/cfcd7413d1afbabc5ab3c88a892851335be4944a/httpie/output/formatters/colors.py#L31

    We should load these styles lazily when a user specifies --style explicitly.

    performance 
    opened by isidentical 4
  • Ignoring broken plugins

    Ignoring broken plugins

    Seems like there are a couple of broken plugins out there, and when any of them are installed in the system it completely blocks the usage of http/https commands. An example scenario;

    $ pip install httpie
    $ pip install httpie-aws-auth
    $ http
    Traceback (most recent call last):
      File "/usr/local/bin/http", line 8, in <module>
        sys.exit(main())
      File "/usr/local/lib/python3.9/site-packages/httpie/__main__.py", line 9, in main
        exit_status = main()
      File "/usr/local/lib/python3.9/site-packages/httpie/core.py", line 35, in main
        plugin_manager.load_installed_plugins()
      File "/usr/local/lib/python3.9/site-packages/httpie/plugins/manager.py", line 35, in load_installed_plugins
        plugin = entry_point.load()
      File "/usr/local/lib/python3.9/site-packages/pkg_resources/__init__.py", line 2450, in load
        return self.resolve()
      File "/usr/local/lib/python3.9/site-packages/pkg_resources/__init__.py", line 2456, in resolve
        module = __import__(self.module_name, fromlist=['__name__'], level=0)
      File "/usr/local/lib/python3.9/site-packages/httpie_aws_auth.py", line 8, in <module>
        from httpie import ExitStatus
    ImportError: cannot import name 'ExitStatus' from 'httpie' (/usr/local/lib/python3.9/site-packages/httpie/__init__.py)
    

    A straightforward solution for this is ignoring these errors, and throwing a warning to user (Warning: Failed to load 'httpie-aws-auth' plugin, see '/tmp/xxx.txt' for more logs). This way, even if the plugins fail they will continue to use the remaining possibilities of the httpie.

    enhancement new 
    opened by isidentical 2
  • SSL/TLS server certificat validation

    SSL/TLS server certificat validation

    Checklist

    • [x] I've searched for similar issues.
    • [x] I'm using the latest version of HTTPie.

    Context

    • (Arch)Linux 5.10.78-1-lts
    • python 3.9.7
    • httpie 2.6.0
    • rootCA/interCA/serverCA
    • interCA system trusted
    • rootCA system trusted
    • web browsers (Cr/Ff) OK
    • curl/wget OK

    Minimal reproduction code and steps

    1. https https://server
    2. https --verify rootCA.pem https://server

    Current result

    1. https: error: SSLError: HTTPSConnectionPool(host='server', port=443): Max retries exceeded with url: / (Caused by SSLError(SSLCertVerificationError(1, '[SSL: CERTIFICATE_VERIFY_FAILED] certificate verify failed: self signed certificate in certificate chain (_ssl.c:1129)'))) while doing a GET request to URL: https://server/
    2. OK

    Expected result

    1. OK
    2. OK

    Debug output

    https --debug https://server/
    HTTPie 2.6.0
    Requests 2.26.0
    Pygments 2.10.0
    Python 3.9.7 (default, Oct 10 2021, 15:13:22) 
    [GCC 11.1.0]
    /home/patatetom/.local/pipx/venvs/httpie/bin/python
    Linux 5.10.78-1-lts
    
    <Environment {'colors': 256,
     'config': {'__meta__': {'about': 'HTTPie configuration file',
                             'help': 'https://httpie.org/doc#config',
                             'httpie': '1.0.2'},
                'default_options': []},
     'config_dir': PosixPath('/home/patatetom/.httpie'),
     'devnull': <property object at 0x7fb864b97090>,
     'is_windows': False,
     'log_error': <function Environment.log_error at 0x7fb864b84f70>,
     'program_name': 'https',
     'stderr': <_io.TextIOWrapper name='<stderr>' mode='w' encoding='utf-8'>,
     'stderr_isatty': True,
     'stdin': <_io.TextIOWrapper name='<stdin>' mode='r' encoding='utf-8'>,
     'stdin_encoding': 'utf-8',
     'stdin_isatty': True,
     'stdout': <_io.TextIOWrapper name='<stdout>' mode='w' encoding='utf-8'>,
     'stdout_encoding': 'utf-8',
     'stdout_isatty': True}>
    
    <PluginManager {'adapters': [],
     'auth': [<class 'httpie.plugins.builtin.BasicAuthPlugin'>,
              <class 'httpie.plugins.builtin.DigestAuthPlugin'>],
     'converters': [],
     'formatters': [<class 'httpie.output.formatters.headers.HeadersFormatter'>,
                    <class 'httpie.output.formatters.json.JSONFormatter'>,
                    <class 'httpie.output.formatters.xml.XMLFormatter'>,
                    <class 'httpie.output.formatters.colors.ColorFormatter'>]}>
    
    >>> requests.request(**{'auth': None,
     'data': RequestJSONDataDict(),
     'headers': {'User-Agent': b'HTTPie/2.6.0'},
     'method': 'get',
     'params': <generator object MultiValueOrderedDict.items at 0x7fb864a795f0>,
     'url': 'https://server/'})
    
    
    https: error: SSLError: HTTPSConnectionPool(host='server', port=443): Max retries exceeded with url: / (Caused by SSLError(SSLCertVerificationError(1, '[SSL: CERTIFICATE_VERIFY_FAILED] certificate verify failed: self signed certificate in certificate chain (_ssl.c:1129)'))) while doing a GET request to URL: https://server/
    
    Traceback (most recent call last):
      File "/home/patatetom/.local/pipx/venvs/httpie/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 699, in urlopen
        httplib_response = self._make_request(
      File "/home/patatetom/.local/pipx/venvs/httpie/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 382, in _make_request
        self._validate_conn(conn)
      File "/home/patatetom/.local/pipx/venvs/httpie/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 1010, in _validate_conn
        conn.connect()
      File "/home/patatetom/.local/pipx/venvs/httpie/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connection.py", line 416, in connect
        self.sock = ssl_wrap_socket(
      File "/home/patatetom/.local/pipx/venvs/httpie/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/util/ssl_.py", line 449, in ssl_wrap_socket
        ssl_sock = _ssl_wrap_socket_impl(
      File "/home/patatetom/.local/pipx/venvs/httpie/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/util/ssl_.py", line 493, in _ssl_wrap_socket_impl
        return ssl_context.wrap_socket(sock, server_hostname=server_hostname)
      File "/usr/lib/python3.9/ssl.py", line 500, in wrap_socket
        return self.sslsocket_class._create(
      File "/usr/lib/python3.9/ssl.py", line 1040, in _create
        self.do_handshake()
      File "/usr/lib/python3.9/ssl.py", line 1309, in do_handshake
        self._sslobj.do_handshake()
    ssl.SSLCertVerificationError: [SSL: CERTIFICATE_VERIFY_FAILED] certificate verify failed: self signed certificate in certificate chain (_ssl.c:1129)
    
    During handling of the above exception, another exception occurred:
    
    Traceback (most recent call last):
      File "/home/patatetom/.local/pipx/venvs/httpie/lib/python3.9/site-packages/requests/adapters.py", line 439, in send
        resp = conn.urlopen(
      File "/home/patatetom/.local/pipx/venvs/httpie/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/connectionpool.py", line 755, in urlopen
        retries = retries.increment(
      File "/home/patatetom/.local/pipx/venvs/httpie/lib/python3.9/site-packages/urllib3/util/retry.py", line 574, in increment
        raise MaxRetryError(_pool, url, error or ResponseError(cause))
    urllib3.exceptions.MaxRetryError: HTTPSConnectionPool(host='server', port=443): Max retries exceeded with url: / (Caused by SSLError(SSLCertVerificationError(1, '[SSL: CERTIFICATE_VERIFY_FAILED] certificate verify failed: self signed certificate in certificate chain (_ssl.c:1129)')))
    
    During handling of the above exception, another exception occurred:
    
    Traceback (most recent call last):
      File "/home/patatetom/.local/bin/https", line 8, in <module>
        sys.exit(main())
      File "/home/patatetom/.local/pipx/venvs/httpie/lib/python3.9/site-packages/httpie/__main__.py", line 9, in main
        exit_status = main()
      File "/home/patatetom/.local/pipx/venvs/httpie/lib/python3.9/site-packages/httpie/core.py", line 70, in main
        exit_status = program(
      File "/home/patatetom/.local/pipx/venvs/httpie/lib/python3.9/site-packages/httpie/core.py", line 169, in program
        for message in messages:
      File "/home/patatetom/.local/pipx/venvs/httpie/lib/python3.9/site-packages/httpie/client.py", line 102, in collect_messages
        response = requests_session.send(
      File "/home/patatetom/.local/pipx/venvs/httpie/lib/python3.9/site-packages/requests/sessions.py", line 655, in send
        r = adapter.send(request, **kwargs)
      File "/home/patatetom/.local/pipx/venvs/httpie/lib/python3.9/site-packages/requests/adapters.py", line 514, in send
        raise SSLError(e, request=request)
    requests.exceptions.SSLError: HTTPSConnectionPool(host='server', port=443): Max retries exceeded with url: / (Caused by SSLError(SSLCertVerificationError(1, '[SSL: CERTIFICATE_VERIFY_FAILED] certificate verify failed: self signed certificate in certificate chain (_ssl.c:1129)')))
    

    Additional information, screenshots, or code examples

    hi, it seems that it is the use of the custom SSL context which poses problem because the direct use of the python ssl module does not pose any particular problem to access https://server/... regards, lacsaP.

    bug new 
    opened by patatetom 0
  • cmd: Implement httpie plugins interface

    cmd: Implement httpie plugins interface

    Resolves #566.

    Remaining stuff:

    • [x] Fix windows (apparently some sysconfig issues)
    • [x] Docs
    • [x] More tests (and possibly some functional tests for error scenerios)
    • [x] Playing with real world plugins (not part of the PR, but we should test them and ensure they are working both ways)
    • [x] Improving UI for errors (e.g PermissionError)
    opened by isidentical 8
  • GUI/CLI interface for saving requests

    GUI/CLI interface for saving requests

    Checklist

    • [x] I've searched for similar feature requests.

    Enhancement request

    Add a GUI/CLI interface for saving requests.


    Problem it solves

    It makes it easier to remember/debug requests.


    Additional information, screenshots, or code examples

    Similar to Insomnia or Postman

    Search Terms (this should be added to the template by the way)

    postman insomnia gui cli saving requests

    enhancement new 
    opened by pjalsGit 1
  • Do not append missing XML declaration in formatted responses

    Do not append missing XML declaration in formatted responses

    Fixes #1156.

    opened by this-is-r-gaurav 2
  • Drop Python 3.6. support in Dec due to EOL

    Drop Python 3.6. support in Dec due to EOL

    A friendly note to all our community: HTTPie will drop Python 3.6 support by January, 2022. Indeed, the Python Software Foundation will cease to maintain it by December, 2021.

    For those who may ask why: our rational is to drop insecure versions immediately when that happens.

    That issue will be used a a reminder of tasks to be done in order to clean-up the code for such removal.

    planned 
    opened by BoboTiG 0
  • Please vote on issues :+1: :-1:

    Please vote on issues :+1: :-1:

    Hello world,

    In order to help us prioritizing the work on HTTPie, you could simply use reactions on issues description. We will try to include most wanted bug fixes and features in our development cycles, so let's us know what you are interested in the most :)

    Thanks,

    The HTTPie team.

    opened by BoboTiG 1
  • Do not append missing XML declaration in formatted responses

    Do not append missing XML declaration in formatted responses

    Minimal reproduction code and steps

    1. Create the file repro.xml with that content:
    <!-- comment --><root><element key='value'>text</element><element>text</element>tail<empty-element/></root>
    
    1. Serve that file using:
    $ python -m http.server
    
    1. And GET the file:
    $ http :8000/repro.xml
    

    Current result

    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
    <!-- comment -->
    <root>
      <element key="value">text</element>
      <element>text</element>
      tail
      <empty-element/>
    </root>
    

    Note the additional XML declaration (it is not present from the original response).

    Expected result

    The responses should not be altered:

    <!-- comment -->
    <root>
      <element key="value">text</element>
      <element>text</element>
      tail
      <empty-element/>
    </root>
    

    Additional information, screenshots, or code examples

    When pretty-printing a XML response that does not contain a XML declaration, minidom will append one (source).

    bug help wanted 
    opened by BoboTiG 6
  • HTTP request hangs for some site

    HTTP request hangs for some site

    Checklist

    • [x] I've searched for similar issues.
    • [x] I'm using the latest version of HTTPie.

    What are the steps to reproduce the problem?

    1. hit the "Try Online" button of the homepage of https://httpie.io/
    2. input command 'http https://www.cmegroup.com' and hit Enter
    3. the output hangs without response body

    What is the expected result? The response body text (web page source codes)

    What happens instead? None. Empty.

    Debug output

    Please re-run the command with --debug, then copy the entire command & output and paste both below:

    ~ $ http --debug https://www.cmegroup.com
    HTTPie 2.4.0
    Requests 2.26.0
    Pygments 2.9.0
    Python 3.7.6 (default, Jan 30 2020, 09:44:41) 
    [GCC 9.2.1 20190827 (Red Hat 9.2.1-1)]
    /usr/bin/python3
    Linux 4.18.0-147.3.1.el8_1.x86_64
    
    <Environment {'colors': 256,
     'config': {'default_options': ['--style=monokai']},
     'config_dir': PosixPath('/home/termible/.httpie'),
     'devnull': <property object at 0x7fbe6e995a10>,
     'is_windows': False,
     'log_error': <function Environment.log_error at 0x7fbe6e99a5f0>,
     'program_name': 'http',
     'stderr': <_io.TextIOWrapper name='<stderr>' mode='w' encoding='UTF-8'>,
     'stderr_isatty': True,
     'stdin': <_io.TextIOWrapper name='<stdin>' mode='r' encoding='UTF-8'>,
     'stdin_encoding': 'UTF-8',
     'stdin_isatty': True,
     'stdout': <_io.TextIOWrapper name='<stdout>' mode='w' encoding='UTF-8'>,
     'stdout_encoding': 'UTF-8',
     'stdout_isatty': True}>
    
    >>> requests.request(**{'auth': None,
     'data': RequestJSONDataDict(),
     'headers': {'User-Agent': b'HTTPie/2.4.0'},
     'method': 'get',
     'params': <generator object MultiValueOrderedDict.items at 0x7fbe6e8ce4d0>,
     'url': 'https://www.cmegroup.com'})
    

    Provide any additional information, screenshots, or code examples below: The same problem occurs for https://www.nasdaq.com, while good for https://www.bing.com and many others.

    bug new 
    opened by arloan 0
Releases(2.6.0)
  • 2.6.0(Oct 14, 2021)

    Blog post: What’s new in HTTPie 2.6.0

    • Added support for formatting & coloring of JSON bodies preceded by non-JSON data (e.g., an XXSI prefix). (#1130)
    • Added charset auto-detection when Content-Type doesn’t include it. (#1110, #1168)
    • Added --response-charset to allow overriding the response encoding for terminal display purposes. (#1168)
    • Added --response-mime to allow overriding the response mime type for coloring and formatting for the terminal. (#1168)
    • Added the ability to silence warnings through using -q or --quiet twice (e.g. -qq) (#1175)
    • Added installed plugin list to --debug output. (#1165)
    • Fixed duplicate keys preservation in JSON data. (#1163)

    → Join our Discord community: https://httpie.io/discord → Install HTTPie: https://httpie.io/docs#installation → Learn more: https://httpie.io

    Source code(tar.gz)
    Source code(zip)
  • 2.5.0(Sep 6, 2021)

    Blog post: What’s new in HTTPie 2.5.0

    • Added --raw to allow specifying the raw request body without extra processing as an alternative to stdin. (#534)
    • Added support for XML formatting. (#1129)
    • Added internal support for file-like object responses to improve adapter plugin support. (#1094)
    • Fixed --continue --download with a single byte to be downloaded left. (#1032)
    • Fixed --verbose HTTP 307 redirects with streamed request body. (#1088)
    • Fixed handling of session files with Cookie: followed by other headers. (#1126)

    → Join our Discord community: https://httpie.io/chat → Install HTTPie: https://httpie.io/docs#installation → Learn more: https://httpie.io

    Source code(tar.gz)
    Source code(zip)
  • 2.4.0(Feb 6, 2021)

    HTTPie /aitch-tee-tee-pie/ CLI is a human-friendly CLI HTTP client for the API era.

    The 2.4.0 release introduces the following improvements:

    • Added support for --session cookie expiration based on Set-Cookie: max-age=<n>. (#1029)
    • Show a --check-status warning with --quiet as well, not only when the output is redirected. (#1026)
    • Fixed upload with --session (#1020).
    • Fixed a missing blank line between request and response (#1006).

    Join our Discord community: https://httpie.io/chat Install HTTPie: https://httpie.io/docs#installation Learn more: https://httpie.io

    Source code(tar.gz)
    Source code(zip)
  • 2.3.0(Oct 25, 2020)

    • Added support for streamed uploads (#201).
    • Added support for multipart upload streaming (#684).
    • Added support for body-from-file upload streaming (http httpbin.org/post @file).
    • Added --chunked to enable chunked transfer encoding (#753).
    • Added --multipart to allow multipart/form-data encoding for non-file --form requests as well.
    • Added support for preserving field order in multipart requests (#903).
    • Added --boundary to allow a custom boundary string for multipart/form-data requests.
    • Added support for combining cookies specified on the CLI and in a session file (#932).
    • Added out of the box SOCKS support with no extra installation (#904).
    • Added --quiet, -q flag to enforce silent behaviour.
    • Fixed the handling of invalid expires dates in Set-Cookie headers (#963).
    • Removed Tox testing entirely (#943).

    HTTPie /aitch-tee-tee-pie/ CLI is a user-friendly command-line HTTP client for the API era. It comes with JSON support, syntax highlighting, persistent sessions, wget-like downloads, plugins, and more.

    Learn more: https://httpie.org Install HTTPie: https://httpie.org/docs#installation

    Source code(tar.gz)
    Source code(zip)
  • 2.2.0(Jun 18, 2020)

    • Added support for custom content types for uploaded files (#927, #668).
    • Added support for $XDG_CONFIG_HOME (#920).
    • Added support for Set-Cookie-triggered cookie expiration (#853).
    • Added --format-options to allow disabling sorting, changing JSON indent size, etc. (#128)
    • Added --sorted and --unsorted shortcuts for (un)setting all sorting-related --format-options. (#128)
    • Added --ciphers to allow configuring OpenSSL ciphers (#870).
    • Added netrc support for auth plugins. Enabled for --auth-type=basic and digest, 3rd parties may opt in (#718, #719, #852, #934).
    • Fixed built-in plugins-related circular imports (#925).
    Source code(tar.gz)
    Source code(zip)
  • 2.1.0(Apr 18, 2020)

    • Added --path-as-is to bypass dot segment (/../ or /./) URL squashing (#895).
    • Changed the default Accept header value for JSON requests from application/json, */* to application/json, */*;q=0.5 to clearly indicate preference (#488).
    • Fixed --form file upload mixed with redirected stdin error handling (#840).
    Source code(tar.gz)
    Source code(zip)
  • 2.0.0(Jan 12, 2020)

    • Removed Python 2.7 support (Python 3.6+ is now required).
    • Added --offline to allow building an HTTP request and printing it but not actually sending it over the network.
    • Replaced the old collect-all-then-process handling of HTTP communication with one-by-one processing of each HTTP request or response as they become available. This means that you can see headers immediately, see what is being sent even if the request fails, etc.
    • Removed automatic config file creation to avoid concurrency issues.
    • Removed the default 30-second connection --timeout limit.
    • Removed Python’s default limit of 100 response headers.
    • Added --max-headers to allow setting the max header limit.
    • Added --compress to allow request body compression.
    • Added --ignore-netrc to allow bypassing credentials from .netrc.
    • Added https alias command with https:// as the default scheme.
    • Added $ALL_PROXY documentation.
    • Added type annotations throughout the codebase.
    • Added tests/ to the PyPi package for the convenience of downstream package maintainers.
    • Fixed an error when stdin was a closed fd.
    • Improved --debug output formatting.
    Source code(tar.gz)
    Source code(zip)
  • 1.0.3(Aug 26, 2019)

    Fixed CVE-2019-10751 — the way the output filename is generated for --download requests without --output resulting in a redirect has been changed to only consider the initial URL as the base for the generated filename, and not the final one. This fixes a potential security issue under the following scenario:

    1. A --download request with no explicit --output is made (e.g., $ http -d example.org/file.txt), instructing HTTPie to generate the output filename from the Content-Disposition response header, or from the URL if the header is not provided.
    2. The server handling the request has been modified by an attacker and instead of the expected response the URL returns a redirect to another URL, e.g., attacker.example.org/.bash_profile, whose response does not provide a Content-Disposition header (i.e., the base for the generated filename becomes .bash_profile instead of file.txt).
    3. Your current directory doesn’t already contain .bash_profile (i.e., no unique suffix is added to the generated filename).
    4. You don’t notice the potentially unexpected output filename as reported by HTTPie in the console output (e.g., Downloading 100.00 B to ".bash_profile").
    Source code(tar.gz)
    Source code(zip)
  • 1.0.2(Nov 14, 2018)

  • 1.0.1(Nov 14, 2018)

  • 1.0.0(Nov 2, 2018)

    • Added --style=auto which follows the terminal ANSI color styles.
    • Added support for selecting TLS 1.3 via --ssl=tls1.3 (available once implemented in upstream libraries).
    • Added true/false as valid values for --verify (in addition to yes/no) and the boolean value is case-insensitive.
    • Changed the default --style from solarized to auto (on Windows it stays fruity).
    • Fixed default headers being incorrectly case-sensitive.
    • Removed Python 2.6 support.
    Source code(tar.gz)
    Source code(zip)
  • 0.9.9(Jul 22, 2018)

  • 0.9.8(Dec 8, 2016)

    • Extended auth plugin API.
    • Added exit status code 7 for plugin errors.
    • Added support for curses-less Python installations.
    • Fixed REQUEST_ITEM arg incorrectly being reported as required.
    • Improved CTRL-C interrupt handling.
    • Added the standard exit status code 130 for keyboard interrupts.
    Source code(tar.gz)
    Source code(zip)
  • 0.9.6(Aug 13, 2016)

    • Added Python 3 as a dependency for Homebrew installations to ensure some of the newer HTTP features work out of the box for macOS users (starting with HTTPie 0.9.4.).
    • Added the ability to unset a request header with Header:, and send an empty value with Header;.
    • Added --default-scheme <URL_SCHEME> to enable things like $ alias https='http --default-scheme=https.
    • Added -I as a shortcut for --ignore-stdin.
    • Added fish shell completion (located in extras/httpie-completion.fish in the Github repo).
    • Updated requests to 2.10.0 so that SOCKS support can be added via pip install requests[socks].
    • Changed the default JSON Accept header from application/json to application/json, */*.
    • Changed the pre-processing of request HTTP headers so that any leading and trailing whitespace is removed.
    Source code(tar.gz)
    Source code(zip)
  • 0.9.4(Jul 1, 2016)

    • Added Content-Type of files uploaded in multipart/form-data requests
    • Added --ssl=<PROTOCOL> to specify the desired SSL/TLS protocol version to use for HTTPS requests.
    • Added JSON detection with --json, -j to work around incorrect Content-Type
    • Added --all to show intermediate responses such as redirects (with --follow)
    • Added --history-print, -P WHAT to specify formatting of intermediate responses
    • Added --max-redirects=N (default 30)
    • Added -A as short name for --auth-type
    • Added -F as short name for --follow
    • Removed the implicit_content_type config option (use "default_options": ["--form"] instead)
    • Redirected stdout doesn't trigger an error anymore when --output FILE is set
    • Changed the default --style back to solarized for better support of light and dark terminals
    • Improved --debug output
    • Fixed --session when used with --download
    • Fixed --download to trim too long filenames before saving the file
    • Fixed the handling of Content-Type with multiple +subtype parts
    • Removed the XML formatter as the implementation suffered from multiple issues
    Source code(tar.gz)
    Source code(zip)
  • 0.9.3(Jan 1, 2016)

    • Changed the default color --style from solarized to monokai
    • Added basic Bash autocomplete support (need to be installed manually)
    • Added request details to connection error messages
    • Fixed 'requests.packages.urllib3' has no attribute 'disable_warnings' errors that occurred in some installations
    • Fixed colors and formatting on Windows
    • Fixed --auth prompt on Windows
    Source code(tar.gz)
    Source code(zip)
  • 0.9.2(Feb 24, 2015)

  • 0.9.1(Feb 7, 2015)

  • 0.1.6(Feb 1, 2015)

  • 0.2.0(Feb 1, 2015)

    • Added Python 3 support.
    • Added the ability to print the HTTP request as well as the response (see --print and --verbose).
    • Added support for Digest authentication.
    • Added file upload support (http -f POST [email protected]/path/to/file).
    • Improved syntax highlighting for JSON.
    • Added support for field name escaping.
    • Many bug fixes.
    Source code(tar.gz)
    Source code(zip)
  • 0.2.1(Feb 1, 2015)

  • 0.2.2(Feb 1, 2015)

    • The METHOD positional argument can now be omitted (defaults to GET, or to POST with data).
    • Fixed --verbose --form.
    • Added support for Tox.
    Source code(tar.gz)
    Source code(zip)
  • 0.2.3(Feb 1, 2015)

  • 0.2.4(Feb 1, 2015)

  • 0.2.5(Feb 1, 2015)

    • Unicode characters in prettified JSON now don't get escaped for improved readability.
    • --auth now prompts for a password if only a username provided.
    • Added support for request payloads from a file path with automatic Content-Type (http URL @/path).
    • Fixed missing query string when displaying the request headers via --verbose.
    • Fixed Content-Type for requests with no data.
    Source code(tar.gz)
    Source code(zip)
  • 0.2.6(Feb 1, 2015)

    • The short option for --headers is now -h (-t has been removed, for usage use --help).
    • Form data and URL parameters can have multiple fields with the same name (e.g.,http -f url a=1 a=2).
    • Added --check-status to exit with an error on HTTP 3xx, 4xx and 5xx (3, 4, and 5, respectively).
    • If the output is piped to another program or redirected to a file, the default behaviour is to only print the response body. (It can still be overwritten via the --print flag.)
    • Improved highlighting of HTTP headers.
    • Added query string parameters (param==value).
    • Added support for terminal colors under Windows.
    Source code(tar.gz)
    Source code(zip)
  • 0.2.7(Feb 1, 2015)

    • Compatibility with Requests 0.13.6.
    • Streamed terminal output. --stream, -S can be used to enable streaming also with --pretty and to ensure a more frequent output flushing.
    • Support for efficient large file downloads.
    • Sort headers by name (unless --pretty=none).
    • Response body is fetched only when needed (e.g., not with --headers).
    • Improved content type matching.
    • Updated Solarized color scheme.
    • Windows: Added --output FILE to store output into a file (piping results in corrupted data on Windows).
    • Proper handling of binary requests and responses.
    • Fixed printing of multipart/form-data requests.
    • Renamed --traceback to --debug.
    Source code(tar.gz)
    Source code(zip)
  • 0.3.0(Feb 1, 2015)

    • Allow output redirection on Windows.
    • Added configuration file.
    • Added persistent session support.
    • Renamed --allow-redirects to --follow.
    • Improved the usability of http --help.
    • Fixed installation on Windows with Python 3.
    • Fixed colorized output on Windows with Python 3.
    • CRLF HTTP header field separation in the output.
    • Added exit status code 2 for timed-out requests.
    • Added the option to separate colorizing and formatting (--pretty=all, --pretty=colors and --pretty=format). --ugly has bee removed in favor of --pretty=none.
    Source code(tar.gz)
    Source code(zip)
  • 0.3.1(Feb 1, 2015)

  • 0.4.0(Feb 1, 2015)

    • Python 3.3 compatibility.
    • Requests >= v1.0.4 compatibility.
    • Added support for credentials in URL.
    • Added --no-option for every --option to be config-friendly.
    • Mutually exclusive arguments can be specified multiple times. The last value is used.
    Source code(tar.gz)
    Source code(zip)
Owner
HTTPie
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HTTPie
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